URANTIA RAAMAT - 139. Kiri. Kaksteist apostlit

(UF-EST-001-2010-1)

URANTIA RAAMAT   

IV OSA: Jeesuse elu ja Õpetused



139. Kiri. Kaksteist apostlit

Paper 139 : The Twelve Apostles

JEESUSE võlu ja õiglust tema maises elus tõendab kõnekalt asjaolu, et ehkki ta purustas korduvalt oma apostlite lootused ja rebis tükkideks iga nende püüde end isiklikult ülendada, hülgas Jeesuse vaid üks neist.

139:0.1 (1548.1) IT IS an eloquent testimony to the charm and righteousness of Jesus’ earth life that, although he repeatedly dashed to pieces the hopes of his apostles and tore to shreds their every ambition for personal exaltation, only one deserted him.

Apostlid kuulsid Jeesuselt taevariigist ja Jeesus õppis neilt palju inimeste kuningriigi ja inimloomuse kohta Urantial ning teistes arenevates aja ja ruumi maailmades. Need kaksteist meest esindasid inimliku meelelaadi paljusid eri tüüpe ja koolitus polnud neid ühetaoliseks muutnud. Mitmel neist Galilea kaluritest voolas soontes saja aasta eest toimunud Galilea paganliku elanikkonna sunniviisilise uskupööramise tulemusena tublisti paganaverd.

139:0.2 (1548.2) The apostles learned from Jesus about the kingdom of heaven, and Jesus learned much from them about the kingdom of men, human nature as it lives on Urantia and on the other evolutionary worlds of time and space. These twelve men represented many different types of human temperament, and they had not been made alike by schooling. Many of these Galilean fishermen carried heavy strains of gentile blood as a result of the forcible conversion of the gentile population of Galilee one hundred years previously.

Ärge arvake ekslikult, et apostlid olid täiesti harimatud ja koolitamata. Nad kõik, kaasa arvatud Alfeuse kaksikud, olid lõpetanud sünagoogikooli, õppinud põhjalikult heebrea pühakirju ja omandanud palju tolleaegseid teadmisi. Seitse neist olid lõpetanud sünagoogikooli Kapernaumas ning kogu Galileas polnud leida paremaid juudi koole.

139:0.3 (1548.3) Do not make the mistake of regarding the apostles as being altogether ignorant and unlearned. All of them, except the Alpheus twins, were graduates of the synagogue schools, having been thoroughly trained in the Hebrew scriptures and in much of the current knowledge of that day. Seven were graduates of the Capernaum synagogue schools, and there were no better Jewish schools in all Galilee.

Kui teie ürikutes iseloomustatakse neid kuningriigi sõnumitoojaid kui „harimatuid ja koolituseta” inimesi, siis mõeldakse selle all seda, et nad olid ilmikud, kes polnud saanud õpetust rabidelt ega koolitust pühakirjade rabide kombel tõlgendamiseks. Neil puudus niinimetatud kõrgharidus. Nüüdisajal oleks neid kindlasti harimatuiks peetud ja mõnes ühiskonnarühmas isegi kultuurituiks. Üks on siiski kindel: nad ei olnud kõik läbinud ühesugust jäika ja stereotüüpset õppekava. Noorukieast alates oli igaüks neist omal moel elu tundma õppinud.

139:0.4 (1548.4) When your records refer to these messengers of the kingdom as being “ignorant and unlearned,” it was intended to convey the idea that they were laymen, unlearned in the lore of the rabbis and untrained in the methods of rabbinical interpretation of the Scriptures. They were lacking in so-called higher education. In modern times they would certainly be considered uneducated, and in some circles of society even uncultured. One thing is certain: They had not all been put through the same rigid and stereotyped educational curriculum. From adolescence on they had enjoyed separate experiences of learning how to live.

1. Andreas, esimene väljavalitu

1. Andrew, the First Chosen

Andreas, kuningriigi apostlikorpuse juht, oli sündinud Kapernaumas. Ta oli vanim laps viielapselises peres, kuhu kuulusid peale tema veel vend Siimon ja ta kolm õde. Tema nüüd juba surnud isa oli olnud Sebedeuse partner kalakuivatamisettevõttes Kapernauma kalasadamas Betsaidas. Apostliks saades ei olnud Andreas abielus, vaid elas oma abielus venna Siimon Peetruse juures. Mõlemad olid kalamehed ning Sebedeuse poegade Jaakobuse ja Johannese partnerid.

139:1.1 (1548.5) Andrew, chairman of the apostolic corps of the kingdom, was born in Capernaum. He was the oldest child in a family of five — himself, his brother Simon, and three sisters. His father, now dead, had been a partner of Zebedee in the fish-drying business at Bethsaida, the fishing harbor of Capernaum. When he became an apostle, Andrew was unmarried but made his home with his married brother, Simon Peter. Both were fishermen and partners of James and John the sons of Zebedee.

Aastal 26 pKr, mil Andreas apostliks valiti, oli ta 33-aastane, tervelt aasta Jeesusest vanem ja vanem ka kõigist teistest apostlitest. Ta põlvnes silmapaistvate esivanemate soost ja oli kaheteistkümnest kõige võimekam. Kui kõneosavus välja arvata, oli ta oma kaaslastega võrdne peaaegu kõigis võimetes, mida üldse võis ette kujutada. Jeesus ei andnud Andreasele kunagi vennalikku hüüdnime. Ent nii nagu apostlid hakkasid Jeesust peagi Meistriks nimetama, andsid nad ka Andreasele nime, mis tähendas „juht”.

139:1.2 (1548.6) In A.D. 26, the year he was chosen as an apostle, Andrew was 33, a full year older than Jesus and the oldest of the apostles. He sprang from an excellent line of ancestors and was the ablest man of the twelve. Excepting oratory, he was the peer of his associates in almost every imaginable ability. Jesus never gave Andrew a nickname, a fraternal designation. But even as the apostles soon began to call Jesus Master, so they also designated Andrew by a term the equivalent of Chief.

Andreas oli hea organisaator, kuid veel parem haldaja. Ta oli üks neljast siseringi kuuluvast apostlist, et aga Jeesus oli ta määranud apostlirühma juhiks, pidi ta oma vendade seas korda pidama, sel ajal kui ülejäänud kolm tundsid rõõmu väga lähedasest osadusest Meistriga. Andreas jäi kuni päris lõpuni apostlikorpuse peaks.

139:1.3 (1549.1) Andrew was a good organizer but a better administrator. He was one of the inner circle of four apostles, but his appointment by Jesus as the head of the apostolic group made it necessary for him to remain on duty with his brethren while the other three enjoyed very close communion with the Master. To the very end Andrew remained dean of the apostolic corps.

Ehkki Andreas ei olnud muljetavaldav jutlustaja, oskas ta teha head isiklikku tööd ning oli selles suhtes kuningriigi misjonäride teerajaja, sest tõi esimese Jeesuse valitud apostlina Jeesuse juurde kohe oma venna Siimoni, kellest sai hiljem suurimaid taevariigi jutlustajaid. Andreas oli Jeesuse põhilisi toetajaid, kui too soovis taevariigi kahteteistkümmet sõnumitoojat koolitada individuaalprogrammi järgi.

139:1.4 (1549.2) Although Andrew was never an effective preacher, he was an efficient personal worker, being the pioneer missionary of the kingdom in that, as the first chosen apostle, he immediately brought to Jesus his brother, Simon, who subsequently became one of the greatest preachers of the kingdom. Andrew was the chief supporter of Jesus’ policy of utilizing the program of personal work as a means of training the twelve as messengers of the kingdom.

Olenemata sellest, kas Jeesus õpetas üksnes apostleid või jutlustas rahvahulkadele, oli Andreas tavaliselt toimuvaga kursis, olles arusaav juht ja tegus haldur. Ta otsustas iga talle lahendada antud küsimuse kohe, kui ta just ei arvanud, et see ületab tema volituste piire; sel juhul pöördus ta küsimusega otse Jeesuse poole.

139:1.5 (1549.3) Whether Jesus privately taught the apostles or preached to the multitude, Andrew was usually conversant with what was going on; he was an understanding executive and an efficient administrator. He rendered a prompt decision on every matter brought to his notice unless he deemed the problem one beyond the domain of his authority, in which event he would take it straight to Jesus.

Andreas ja Peetrus olid iseloomult ja meelelaadilt väga erinevad, kuid nende auks tuleb alati öelda, et nad said omavahel suurepäraselt läbi. Andreas ei kadestanud kunagi Peetruse oraatorivõimeid. Seda ei juhtu just sageli, et Andrease-sugune vanem mees oma andekale nooremale vennale nii sügavat mõju avaldab. Andreas ja Peetrus ei paistnud kunagi teineteise võimeid ega saavutusi vähimalgi määral kadestavat. Nelipüha hilisõhtul, kui suuresti tänu Peetruse energilisele ja innustavale jutlustamisele kuningriiki kaks tuhat hinge juurde võideti, ütles Andreas vennale: „Mina ei suudaks seda teha, aga ma tunnen head meelt, et mul on vend, kes seda suutis.” Peetrus vastas: „Kuid ma poleks praegu siin seda tööd tegemas, kui sa poleks mind Meistri juurde toonud ja oma vankumatu püsivusega mind tema juures hoidnud.” Andreas ja Peetrus olid erandid, kes kummutasid reegli: nad tõestasid, et isegi vennad võivad rahulikult koos elada ja tõhusalt koos töötada.

139:1.6 (1549.4) Andrew and Peter were very unlike in character and temperament, but it must be recorded everlastingly to their credit that they got along together splendidly. Andrew was never jealous of Peter’s oratorical ability. Not often will an older man of Andrew’s type be observed exerting such a profound influence over a younger and talented brother. Andrew and Peter never seemed to be in the least jealous of each other’s abilities or achievements. Late on the evening of the day of Pentecost, when, largely through the energetic and inspiring preaching of Peter, two thousand souls were added to the kingdom, Andrew said to his brother: “I could not do that, but I am glad I have a brother who could.” To which Peter replied: “And but for your bringing me to the Master and by your steadfastness keeping me with him, I should not have been here to do this.” Andrew and Peter were the exceptions to the rule, proving that even brothers can live together peaceably and work together effectively.

Pärast nelipüha oli Peetrus kuulus, kuid vanemat venda Andreast ei ärritanud sugugi, et teda tutvustati kogu ülejäänud elu kui „Siimon Peetruse venda”.

139:1.7 (1549.5) After Pentecost Peter was famous, but it never irritated the older Andrew to spend the rest of his life being introduced as “Simon Peter’s brother.”

Andreas tundis inimesi teistest apostlitest paremini. Ta teadis Juudas Iskarioti südames käärivast rahutusest juba siis, kui keegi teine veel ei kahtlustanud, et nende varahoidjaga on midagi lahti, kuid ta ei rääkinud oma kartustest kellelegi. Andreas tegi sellega kuningriigile suure teene, et soovitas Peetrusele, Jaakobusele ja Johannesele, keda saata esimeste misjonäridena evangeeliumi kuulutama, ja andis neile varastele juhtidele ka nõu, kuidas kuningriigi haldusasju korraldada. Andreasel oli suurepärane oskus leida noortes inimestes varjatud võimeid ja peidus olevaid andeid.

139:1.8 (1549.6) Of all the apostles, Andrew was the best judge of men. He knew that trouble was brewing in the heart of Judas Iscariot even when none of the others suspected that anything was wrong with their treasurer; but he told none of them his fears. Andrew’s great service to the kingdom was in advising Peter, James, and John concerning the choice of the first missionaries who were sent out to proclaim the gospel, and also in counseling these early leaders about the organization of the administrative affairs of the kingdom. Andrew had a great gift for discovering the hidden resources and latent talents of young people.

Üsna pea pärast Jeesuse taevassetõusmist hakkas Andreas paljusid lahkunud Meistri ütlusi ja tegemisi enda jaoks üles kirjutama. Pärast Andrease surma tehti sellest isiklikust ürikust koopiad ja neid levitati vabalt ristiusu varajaste õpetajate seas. Hiljem neid Andrease mitteametlikke märkmeid toimetati, parandati, muudeti ja täiendati, kuni neist kujunes küllaltki jutustav lugu Meistri elust maa peal. Viimased neist vähestest muudetud ja parandatud koopiatest hävisid Aleksandrias tulekahjus ligikaudu sada aastat pärast seda, kui esimene väljavalitud apostel oma algsed tekstid kirjutas.

139:1.9 (1549.7) Very soon after Jesus’ ascension on high, Andrew began the writing of a personal record of many of the sayings and doings of his departed Master. After Andrew’s death other copies of this private record were made and circulated freely among the early teachers of the Christian church. These informal notes of Andrew’s were subsequently edited, amended, altered, and added to until they made up a fairly consecutive narrative of the Master’s life on earth. The last of these few altered and amended copies was destroyed by fire at Alexandria about one hundred years after the original was written by the first chosen of the twelve apostles.

Andreas oli selge mõistuse ja loogilise mõtlemisega otsusekindel mees, kelle iseloomukindlus seisnes tema suurepärases tasakaalukuses. Tema meelelaadi puuduseks oli vähene entusiasm: palju kordi oleks olnud vaja, et ta oleks kaaslasi oma kaalutletud kiitusega ergutanud. Ning see hoidumine oma sõprade väärilisi saavutusi kiitmast tulenes tema vastumeelsusest igasuguste meelituste ja silmakirjalikkuse suhtes. Andreas oli mitmekülgne, tasase meelelaadiga, ennast üles töötanud ja edukas, kuid tagasihoidlik mees.

139:1.10 (1550.1) Andrew was a man of clear insight, logical thought, and firm decision, whose great strength of character consisted in his superb stability. His temperamental handicap was his lack of enthusiasm; he many times failed to encourage his associates by judicious commendation. And this reticence to praise the worthy accomplishments of his friends grew out of his abhorrence of flattery and insincerity. Andrew was one of those all-round, even-tempered, self-made, and successful men of modest affairs.

Kõik apostlid armastasid Jeesust, kuid on tõsi, et igaüht kaheteistkümnest tõmbas tema poole mingi teatav Meistri loomuomadus, mis just sellele apostlile eriti meeldis. Andreas imetles Jeesust tema alatise siiruse ja teesklematu väärikuse pärast. Kui keegi juba Jeesust tundis, tekkis tal kohe soov teda oma sõpradega jagada. Nad tahtsid tõesti, et teda tunneks kogu maailm.

139:1.11 (1550.2) Every one of the apostles loved Jesus, but it remains true that each of the twelve was drawn toward him because of some certain trait of personality which made a special appeal to the individual apostle. Andrew admired Jesus because of his consistent sincerity, his unaffected dignity. When men once knew Jesus, they were possessed with the urge to share him with their friends; they really wanted all the world to know him.

Kui hilisemad tagakiusamised Jeruusalemmast pärit apostlid laiali paiskasid, rändas Andreas läbi Armeenia, Väike-Aasia ja Makedoonia ning pärast seda, kui ta oli palju tuhandeid inimesi kuningriiki toonud, vahistati ta lõpuks Ahhaias Patraes ja löödi risti. Kulus tervelt kaks päeva, enne kui see tugev mees ristil suri, ning kõigi nende traagiliste tundide jooksul kuulutas ta ikka edasi päästvat rõõmusõnumit taevariigist.

139:1.12 (1550.3) When the later persecutions finally scattered the apostles from Jerusalem, Andrew journeyed through Armenia, Asia Minor, and Macedonia and, after bringing many thousands into the kingdom, was finally apprehended and crucified in Patrae in Achaia. It was two full days before this robust man expired on the cross, and throughout these tragic hours he continued effectively to proclaim the glad tidings of the salvation of the kingdom of heaven.

2. Siimon Peetrus

2. Simon Peter

Kui Siimon apostlitega ühines, oli ta kolmekümneaastane. Ta oli abielus, tal oli kolm last ning ta elas Kapernauma lähedal Betsaidas. Tema vend Andreas ja ta naiseema elasid tema juures. Peetrus ja Andreas olid mõlemad Sebedeuse poegade kaluritest partnerid.

139:2.1 (1550.4) When Simon joined the apostles, he was thirty years of age. He was married, had three children, and lived at Bethsaida, near Capernaum. His brother, Andrew, and his wife’s mother lived with him. Both Peter and Andrew were fisher partners of the sons of Zebedee.

Meister oli Siimonit juba mõnda aega tundnud, kui Andreas teda Jeesusele teise apostlina tutvustas. Kui Jeesus andis Siimonile nimeks Peetrus, naeratas ta seejuures; see oli mõeldud hüüdnimena. Kõik sõbrad tundsid Siimonit kui ebakindlat ja impulsiivset meest. Hiljem, tõsi küll, omistas Jeesus sellele naljatamisi antud hüüdnimele uue erilise tähenduse.

139:2.2 (1550.5) The Master had known Simon for some time before Andrew presented him as the second of the apostles. When Jesus gave Simon the name Peter, he did it with a smile; it was to be a sort of nickname. Simon was well known to all his friends as an erratic and impulsive fellow. True, later on, Jesus did attach a new and significant import to this lightly bestowed nickname.

Siimon Peetrus oli impulsiivne ja optimistlik. Ta oli noormeheks sirgudes andnud end vabalt tugevate tunnete meelevalda; ta sattus pidevalt raskustesse, sest kippus alati mõtlematult rääkima. See tekitas kõigile tema sõpradele ja kaaslastele lakkamatult muret ning ta kuulis ka Meistrilt palju leebeid etteheiteid. Ainus põhjus, miks Peetrus oma mõtlematu jutuga suuremasse hätta polnud sattunud, oli see, et ta hakkas väga varakult paljusid oma plaane ja kavasid vend Andreasega läbi arutama, enne kui neid avalikult esitada julges.

139:2.3 (1550.6) Simon Peter was a man of impulse, an optimist. He had grown up permitting himself freely to indulge strong feelings; he was constantly getting into difficulties because he persisted in speaking without thinking. This sort of thoughtlessness also made incessant trouble for all of his friends and associates and was the cause of his receiving many mild rebukes from his Master. The only reason Peter did not get into more trouble because of his thoughtless speaking was that he very early learned to talk over many of his plans and schemes with his brother, Andrew, before he ventured to make public proposals.

Peetrus oli sorav kõneleja, ta rääkis kaunilt ja dramaatiliselt. Peale selle oli ta loomupärane innustav rahvajuht, kiire mõtlemisega, kuid mitte sügav arutleja. Peetrus esitas palju küsimusi, rohkem kui kõik teised apostlid kokku, ning ehkki enamik küsimusi olid head ja asjakohased, olid paljud ka läbimõtlemata ja rumalad. Peetrus ei mõtelnud sügavuti, kuid ta teadis üsna hästi, mida ta tahab. Seepärast oli ta kiire otsustaja ja tegutseja. Sel ajal kui teised rääkisid imestunult, et Jeesus on rannal, hüppas Peetrus vette ja ujus kaldale Meistrit tervitama.

139:2.4 (1550.7) Peter was a fluent speaker, eloquent and dramatic. He was also a natural and inspirational leader of men, a quick thinker but not a deep reasoner. He asked many questions, more than all the apostles put together, and while the majority of these questions were good and relevant, many of them were thoughtless and foolish. Peter did not have a deep mind, but he knew his mind fairly well. He was therefore a man of quick decision and sudden action. While others talked in their astonishment at seeing Jesus on the beach, Peter jumped in and swam ashore to meet the Master.

Peetrus imetles Jeesuses kõige rohkem tema ülimat õrnust. Peetrus pani alati Jeesuse kannatlikkust imeks. Ta ei unustanud kunagi õppetundi, et pahategijale tuleb andestada mitte ainult seitse korda, vaid seitsekümmend seitse korda. Ta mõtles palju neile mälestustele Meistri andestavast iseloomust tumedatel ja süngetel päevadel pärast seda, kui oli mõtlematult ja ettekavatsematult ülempreestri õuel Jeesusest lahti öelnud.

139:2.5 (1551.1) The one trait which Peter most admired in Jesus was his supernal tenderness. Peter never grew weary of contemplating Jesus’ forbearance. He never forgot the lesson about forgiving the wrongdoer, not only seven times but seventy times and seven. He thought much about these impressions of the Master’s forgiving character during those dark and dismal days immediately following his thoughtless and unintended denial of Jesus in the high priest’s courtyard.

Siimon Peetrus oli murettekitavalt kõikuva loomuga, ta võis minna äkki ühest äärmusest teise. Algul keeldus ta laskmast Jeesust oma jalgu pesta, kuid kuulnud Meistri vastust, palus, et see teda üleni peseks. Jeesus siiski teadis, et Peetruse eksimused olid tema peas, mitte südames. Ta oli üks seletamatumaid julguse ja arguse kombinatsioone, kes kunagi maa peal on elanud. Tema iseloomu väga tugev külg oli tema lojaalsus, sõprus. Peetrus armastas Jeesust tõeliselt ja truult. Ning hoolimata sellest tornina kõrguvast andumusest oli ta nii ebastabiilne ja järjekindlusetu, et lasi teenijatüdrukul õrritada end oma Issandast ja Meistrist lahti ütlema. Peetrus suutis taluda tagakiusamist ja muid otseseid rünnakuid, kuid närbus ja tõmbus kössi naeruvääristamise ees. Otserünnaku puhul oli ta vapper sõdur, kuid kohkus hirmunult argpüksina tagasi selja tagant tuleva üllatusrünnaku ees.

139:2.6 (1551.2) Simon Peter was distressingly vacillating; he would suddenly swing from one extreme to the other. First he refused to let Jesus wash his feet and then, on hearing the Master’s reply, begged to be washed all over. But, after all, Jesus knew that Peter’s faults were of the head and not of the heart. He was one of the most inexplicable combinations of courage and cowardice that ever lived on earth. His great strength of character was loyalty, friendship. Peter really and truly loved Jesus. And yet despite this towering strength of devotion he was so unstable and inconstant that he permitted a servant girl to tease him into denying his Lord and Master. Peter could withstand persecution and any other form of direct assault, but he withered and shrank before ridicule. He was a brave soldier when facing a frontal attack, but he was a fear-cringing coward when surprised with an assault from the rear.

Peetrus oli esimene Jeesuse apostel, kes asus kaitsma Filippuse tööd samaarlaste ja Pauluse tööd paganate seas. Hiljem Antiookias, kui ortodokssed juudid teda pilkasid, eemaldus ta oma põhimõtteid reetes ajutiselt paganatest, kutsudes sellega esile Pauluse kartmatud süüdistused.

139:2.7 (1551.3) Peter was the first of Jesus’ apostles to come forward to defend the work of Philip among the Samaritans and Paul among the gentiles; yet later on at Antioch he reversed himself when confronted by ridiculing Judaizers, temporarily withdrawing from the gentiles only to bring down upon his head the fearless denunciation of Paul.

Ta oli esimene apostel, kes Jeesuses ühendatud inimlikkust ja jumalikkust täiest südamest tunnistas, ja esimene — pärast Juudast —, kes temast lahti ütles. Peetrus polnud just eriline unistaja, kuid talle ei meeldinud laskuda ekstaasi ja dramaatilise entusiasmi pilvedelt lihtsasse ja asjalikku reaalsesse maailma.

139:2.8 (1551.4) He was the first one of the apostles to make wholehearted confession of Jesus’ combined humanity and divinity and the first — save Judas — to deny him. Peter was not so much of a dreamer, but he disliked to descend from the clouds of ecstasy and the enthusiasm of dramatic indulgence to the plain and matter-of-fact world of reality.

Nii kujundlikult kui ka sõna-sõnalt Jeesuse järel käies astus ta kas rongkäigu ees või jäi sellest maha, „järgnedes talle kaugelt”. Kuid ta oli nende kaheteistkümne seas silmapaistev jutlustaja, ta tegi ühe põlvkonna jooksul kuningriigi rajamiseks ja oma sõnumitoojate läkitamiseks maailma kõigisse nelja nurka rohkem kui keegi teine peale Pauluse.

139:2.9 (1551.5) In following Jesus, literally and figuratively, he was either leading the procession or else trailing behind — “following afar off.” But he was the outstanding preacher of the twelve; he did more than any other one man, aside from Paul, to establish the kingdom and send its messengers to the four corners of the earth in one generation.

Pärast järelemõtlematut lahtiütlemist Meistrist leidis ta end taas ja läks Andrease osavõtliku ja arusaava juhendamise all esimesena tagasi kalavõrkude juurde, kui apostlid pärast ristilöömist ootama jäid, mis edasi juhtub. Kui ta lõpuks veendus, et Jeesus on talle andestanud, ning teadis, et on Meistri rüppe tagasi võetud, süttisid kuningriigi tuled tema hinges nii eredalt lõkkele, et ta sai tuhandetele pimeduses olijatele eredaks päästvaks valguseks.

139:2.10 (1551.6) After his rash denials of the Master he found himself, and with Andrew’s sympathetic and understanding guidance he again led the way back to the fish nets while the apostles tarried to find out what was to happen after the crucifixion. When he was fully assured that Jesus had forgiven him and knew he had been received back into the Master’s fold, the fires of the kingdom burned so brightly within his soul that he became a great and saving light to thousands who sat in darkness.

Pärast Jeruusalemmast lahkumist ja enne, kui Paulusest oli saanud mittejuudi ristiusu kirikute juhtiv vaim, rändas Peetrus palju ringi ja külastas kõiki kogudusi Baabülonist Korintoseni. Ta külastas ka paljusid Pauluse rajatud kogudusi ja kandis nende eest hoolt. Ehkki Paulus ja Peetrus olid meelelaadilt ja hariduselt, isegi teoloogiliste seisukohtade poolest väga erinevad, töötasid nad hilisematel aastatel täies üksmeeles üheskoos koguduste ülesehitamisel.

139:2.11 (1551.7) After leaving Jerusalem and before Paul became the leading spirit among the gentile Christian churches, Peter traveled extensively, visiting all the churches from Babylon to Corinth. He even visited and ministered to many of the churches which had been raised up by Paul. Although Peter and Paul differed much in temperament and education, even in theology, they worked together harmoniously for the upbuilding of the churches during their later years.

Peetruse stiili ja õpetusi võib näha tema jutlustes, mis on osaliselt kirja pandud Luukase poolt ja Markuse evangeeliumis. Kõige paremini ilmneb tema energiline stiil tekstis, mida nimetatakse Peetruse esimeseks kirjaks; vähemalt ilmnes enne seda, kui üks Pauluse jünger seda hiljem muutis.

139:2.12 (1552.1) Something of Peter’s style and teaching is shown in the sermons partially recorded by Luke and in the Gospel of Mark. His vigorous style was better shown in his letter known as the First Epistle of Peter; at least this was true before it was subsequently altered by a disciple of Paul.

Peetrus eksis aga pidevalt, püüdes juute veenda, et Jeesus oli siiski tõeline juutide messias. Siimon Peetruse mõtetes olid surmatunnini segamini arusaamad Jeesusest kui juudi messiast, Kristusest kui maailma lunastajast ja Inimese Pojast kui Jumala, kogu inimkonna armastava Isa ilmutusest.

139:2.13 (1552.2) But Peter persisted in making the mistake of trying to convince the Jews that Jesus was, after all, really and truly the Jewish Messiah. Right up to the day of his death, Simon Peter continued to suffer confusion in his mind between the concepts of Jesus as the Jewish Messiah, Christ as the world’s redeemer, and the Son of Man as the revelation of God, the loving Father of all mankind.

Peetruse naine oli väga võimekas. Ta tegi aastaid tublit tööd naiskorpuse liikmena ja kui Peetrus Jeruusalemmast välja aeti, saatis ta teda kõigil reisidel kogudustesse ja misjonirännakutel. Ning päeval, mil ta kuulus abikaasa elust lahkus, heideti naine Roomas areenil metsloomade ette.

139:2.14 (1552.3) Peter’s wife was a very able woman. For years she labored acceptably as a member of the women’s corps, and when Peter was driven out of Jerusalem, she accompanied him upon all his journeys to the churches as well as on all his missionary excursions. And the day her illustrious husband yielded up his life, she was thrown to the wild beasts in the arena at Rome.

Nii kuulutas Peetrus, see Jeesuse lähedaste kaaslaste hulka kuuluv mees, väljaspool Jeruusalemma rõõmusõnumit taevariigi hiilgusest ja aust, kuni viis oma hoolekandetöö täielikult lõpule. Ta pidas seda endale suureks auks, kui ta vangistajad talle teatasid, et ta peab surema samamoodi, nagu oli surnud tema Meister — ristil. Ja nii löödigi Siimon Peetrus Roomas risti.

139:2.15 (1552.4) And so this man Peter, an intimate of Jesus, one of the inner circle, went forth from Jerusalem proclaiming the glad tidings of the kingdom with power and glory until the fullness of his ministry had been accomplished; and he regarded himself as the recipient of high honors when his captors informed him that he must die as his Master had died — on the cross. And thus was Simon Peter crucified in Rome.

3. Jaakobus Sebedeus

3. James Zebedee

Jaakobus, vanem Sebedeuse kahest apostlist pojast, kellele Jeesus andis hüüdnimeks Kõuepojad, oli apostliks saades kolmekümneaastane. Ta oli abielus, tal oli neli last ning ta elas oma vanemate lähedal Betsaidas, Kapernauma serval. Ta oli kalur ja pidas ametit koos oma noorema poja Johannesega ning Andrease ja Siimoniga. Jaakobuse ja tema venna Johannese eeliseks oli, et nad tundsid Jeesust kauem kui teised apostlid.

139:3.1 (1552.5) James, the older of the two apostle sons of Zebedee, whom Jesus nicknamed “sons of thunder,” was thirty years old when he became an apostle. He was married, had four children, and lived near his parents in the outskirts of Capernaum, Bethsaida. He was a fisherman, plying his calling in company with his younger brother John and in association with Andrew and Simon. James and his brother John enjoyed the advantage of having known Jesus longer than any of the other apostles.

See võimekas apostel oli vastuolulise meelelaadiga: näis, et tal on tegelikult kaks eri loomust, mida mõlemat käivitavad tugevad tunded. Eriti äge oli ta siis, kui oli sügavalt nördinud. Ta võttis tuld, kui teda piisavalt provotseeriti, ja tormi vaibudes kaldus oma viha põhjendama ja vabandama sellega, et see oli täiesti õiglane nördimusavaldus. Kui need perioodilised vihapursked välja arvata, oli Jaakobus oma isiksuselt Andreasega üsna sarnane. Tal polnud Andrease diskreetsust ega inimestetundmist, kuid ta suutis palju paremini avalikkuse ees esineda. Arvestamata Matteust, oli Jaakobus Peetruse kõrval neist kaheteistkümnest parim oraator.

139:3.2 (1552.6) This able apostle was a temperamental contradiction; he seemed really to possess two natures, both of which were actuated by strong feelings. He was particularly vehement when his indignation was once fully aroused. He had a fiery temper when once it was adequately provoked, and when the storm was over, he was always wont to justify and excuse his anger under the pretense that it was wholly a manifestation of righteous indignation. Except for these periodic upheavals of wrath, James’s personality was much like that of Andrew. He did not have Andrew’s discretion or insight into human nature, but he was a much better public speaker. Next to Peter, unless it was Matthew, James was the best public orator among the twelve.

Ehkki Jaakobus ei olnud mingis mõttes tujukas, võis ta olla ühel päeval vaikne ja sõnakehv, järgmisel päeval aga hea kõneleja ja jutuvestja. Jeesusega rääkis ta tavaliselt vabalt, kuid kaheteistkümne seas võis ta päevade kaupa vaikida. Tema suur puudus seisneski neis seletamatutes vaikimisperioodides.

139:3.3 (1552.7) Though James was in no sense moody, he could be quiet and taciturn one day and a very good talker and storyteller the next. He usually talked freely with Jesus, but among the twelve, for days at a time he was the silent man. His one great weakness was these spells of unaccountable silence.

Jaakobuse isiksuse silmapaistev joon oli tema võime näha ettepanekute kõiki aspekte. Ta jõudis Jeesuse õpetuse tõelise tähenduse ja tähtsuse mõistmisele neist kaheteistkümnest kõige lähemale. Ka temal läks Meistri sõnade tähenduse mõistmisega algul palju aega, aga enne, kui Jeesus nende koolituse lõpetas, oli ta omandanud Jeesuse sõnumist kõrgeima arusaama. Jaakobus suutis mõista väga erinevaid inimloomusi, ta sai hästi läbi nii mitmekülgse Andrease, impulsiivse Peetruse kui ka oma kinnise venna Johannesega.

139:3.4 (1552.8) The outstanding feature of James’s personality was his ability to see all sides of a proposition. Of all the twelve, he came the nearest to grasping the real import and significance of Jesus’ teaching. He, too, was slow at first to comprehend the Master’s meaning, but ere they had finished their training, he had acquired a superior concept of Jesus’ message. James was able to understand a wide range of human nature; he got along well with the versatile Andrew, the impetuous Peter, and his self-contained brother John.

Ehkki Jaakobusel ja Johannesel oli raske koos töötada, oli innustav vaadata, kui hästi nad omavahel läbi saavad. Neil ei õnnestunud see nii hästi kui Andreasel ja Peetrusel, kuid siiski palju paremini kui tavaliselt võiks kahelt vennalt oodata, eriti kui vennad on nii põikpäised ja paindumatud. Nii imelik kui see ka ei paista, olid need kaks Sebedeuse poega teineteise suhtes palju sallivamad kui võõraste suhtes. Nad armastasid teineteist väga, nad olid alati olnud õnnelikud mängukaaslased. Just need Kõuepojad tahtsid kutsuda tule taevast alla hävitama samaarlasi, kes söandasid nende Meistri suhtes lugupidamatust ilmutada. Ent Jaakobuse enneaegne surm muutis üsna palju tema noorema venna ägedat meelelaadi.

139:3.5 (1553.1) Though James and John had their troubles trying to work together, it was inspiring to observe how well they got along. They did not succeed quite so well as Andrew and Peter, but they did much better than would ordinarily be expected of two brothers, especially such headstrong and determined brothers. But, strange as it may seem, these two sons of Zebedee were much more tolerant of each other than they were of strangers. They had great affection for one another; they had always been happy playmates. It was these “sons of thunder” who wanted to call fire down from heaven to destroy the Samaritans who presumed to show disrespect for their Master. But the untimely death of James greatly modified the vehement temperament of his younger brother John.

Jaakobus imetles Jeesuse puhul kõige enam Meistri osavõtlikku armastust. Talle meeldis väga Jeesuse mõistev huvi nii väikeste kui ka suurte, nii rikaste kui ka vaeste vastu.

139:3.6 (1553.2) That characteristic of Jesus which James most admired was the Master’s sympathetic affection. Jesus’ understanding interest in the small and the great, the rich and the poor, made a great appeal to him.

Jaakobus Sebedeus oli tasakaalukas mõtleja ja kavandaja. Koos Andreasega oli ta üks mõistlikumaid apostleid. Ta oli energiline olend, kuid ei kiirustanud kunagi. Ta oli Peetrusele hea tasakaalustaja.

139:3.7 (1553.3) James Zebedee was a well-balanced thinker and planner. Along with Andrew, he was one of the more level-headed of the apostolic group. He was a vigorous individual but was never in a hurry. He was an excellent balance wheel for Peter.

Jaakobus oli tagasihoidlik ja temas leidus vähe dramaatilisust. Ta tegi leplikult oma igapäevatööd, ootamata erilist hüvitust, kuid hakkas taevariigi tõelisest tähendusest juba midagi aru saama. Ning isegi Jaakobuse ja Johannese ema palve puhul anda oma poegadele kohad Jeesuse paremal ja vasakul käel tuleks arvestada, et selle palvega esines nende ema. Ei tohi unustada, et andes märku oma valmisolekust need ülesanded enda peale võtta, olid nad teadlikud ohtudest, mis kaasnesid Meistri oletatava mässuga Rooma võimu vastu, ning valmis selle eest oma hinda maksma. Kui Jeesus küsis, kas nad on valmis oma karikast jooma, ütlesid nad, et on seda. Ning Jaakobuse suhtes oli see sõna-sõnalt õige — ta jõi oma karika tühjaks koos Meistriga, olles esimene apostel, kes märtrisurma koges, sest ta tapeti varakult Herodes Agrippa mõõgaga. Jaakobus oli seega esimene kaheteistkümnest, kes ohverdas oma elu kuningriigi uuel lahingujoonel. Herodes Agrippa kartis Jaakobust rohkem kui ühtki teist apostlit. Ta oli tõepoolest sageli vaikne ja sõnakehv, ent kui tema veendumuste vastu astuti, oli ta vapper ja kindlameelne.

139:3.8 (1553.4) He was modest and undramatic, a daily server, an unpretentious worker, seeking no special reward when he once grasped something of the real meaning of the kingdom. And even in the story about the mother of James and John, who asked that her sons be granted places on the right hand and the left hand of Jesus, it should be remembered that it was the mother who made this request. And when they signified that they were ready to assume such responsibilities, it should be recognized that they were cognizant of the dangers accompanying the Master’s supposed revolt against the Roman power, and that they were also willing to pay the price. When Jesus asked if they were ready to drink the cup, they replied that they were. And as concerns James, it was literally true — he did drink the cup with the Master, seeing that he was the first of the apostles to experience martyrdom, being early put to death with the sword by Herod Agrippa. James was thus the first of the twelve to sacrifice his life upon the new battle line of the kingdom. Herod Agrippa feared James above all the other apostles. He was indeed often quiet and silent, but he was brave and determined when his convictions were aroused and challenged.

Jaakobus elas oma elu täiel rinnal ja kui saabus lõpp, käitus ta nii meeldivalt ja meelekindlalt, et isegi tema süüdistaja ja pealekaebaja, kes tema kohtumõistmise ja hukkamise juures viibis, oli nii liigutatud, et tormas Jaakobuse surma vaatamast eemale ning ühines Jeesuse jüngritega.

139:3.9 (1553.5) James lived his life to the full, and when the end came, he bore himself with such grace and fortitude that even his accuser and informer, who attended his trial and execution, was so touched that he rushed away from the scene of James’s death to join himself to the disciples of Jesus.

4. Johannes Sebedeus

4. John Zebedee

Kui Johannes apostliks sai, oli ta kahekümne nelja aastane ja kaheteistkümnest noorim. Ta polnud abielus ja elas oma vanematega Betsaidas. Johannes oli kalur ja töötas oma venna Jaakobusega partnerluses Andrease ja Peetrusega. Nii enne kui ka pärast apostliks saamist oli Johannes Jeesuse isiklik esindaja suhetes Meistri perekonnaga ning ta täitis seda kohustust seni, kuni Jeesuse ema Maarja elas.

139:4.1 (1553.6) When he became an apostle, John was twenty-four years old and was the youngest of the twelve. He was unmarried and lived with his parents at Bethsaida; he was a fisherman and worked with his brother James in partnership with Andrew and Peter. Both before and after becoming an apostle, John functioned as the personal agent of Jesus in dealing with the Master’s family, and he continued to bear this responsibility as long as Mary the mother of Jesus lived.

Et Johannes oli kaheteistkümnest noorim ja Jeesuse perekonnaasjadega nii tihedalt seotud, oli ta Meistrile väga kallis, kuid poleks õige öelda, et ta oli „jünger, keda Jeesus armastas”. Vaevalt võiks kahtlustada Jeesuse suuremeelset isiksust erapoolikuses, ühe apostli armastamises teistest enam. Asjaolu, et Johannes oli üks Jeesuse kolmest isiklikust abilisest, andis sellele ekslikule ideele värvi juurde, rääkimata sellest, et Johannes koos oma venna Jaakobusega oli tundnud Jeesust teistest kauem.

139:4.2 (1553.7) Since John was the youngest of the twelve and so closely associated with Jesus in his family affairs, he was very dear to the Master, but it cannot be truthfully said that he was “the disciple whom Jesus loved.” You would hardly suspect such a magnanimous personality as Jesus to be guilty of showing favoritism, of loving one of his apostles more than the others. The fact that John was one of the three personal aides of Jesus lent further color to this mistaken idea, not to mention that John, along with his brother James, had known Jesus longer than the others.

Peetrus, Jaakobus ja Johannes määrati Jeesuse isiklikeks abilisteks varsti pärast nende saamist apostliteks. Peagi pärast kaheteistkümne väljavalimist, ajal, kui Jeesus määras Andrease rühma suunajaks, ütles ta Andreasele: „Ja nüüd ma soovin, et sa määraksid kaks-kolm oma kaaslast minu kõrvale, et nad mu eest hoolt kannaksid ja mu igapäevaste vajaduste eest hoolitseksid.” Ning Andreas pidas õigeks usaldada selle erilise ülesande täitmine kolmele järgmisena välja valitud apostlile. Ta oleks tahtnud nii õnnistatud teenistust ka ise pidada, kuid tema oli Meistrilt juba ülesande saanud; seepärast andis ta kohe korralduse, et Jeesuse juurde jäävad Peetrus, Jaakobus ja Johannes.

139:4.3 (1554.1) Peter, James, and John were assigned as personal aides to Jesus soon after they became apostles. Shortly after the selection of the twelve and at the time Jesus appointed Andrew to act as director of the group, he said to him: “And now I desire that you assign two or three of your associates to be with me and to remain by my side, to comfort me and to minister to my daily needs.” And Andrew thought best to select for this special duty the next three first-chosen apostles. He would have liked to volunteer for such a blessed service himself, but the Master had already given him his commission; so he immediately directed that Peter, James, and John attach themselves to Jesus.

Johannes Sebedeusel oli palju meeldivaid iseloomujooni, kuid tema liigne, tavaliselt hästivarjatud eneseuhkus nii meeldiv ei olnud. Tema pikaajalised sidemed Jeesusega olid tema iseloomu suuresti muutnud. Aja jooksul see eneseuhkus küll tunduvalt vähenes, ent kui ta vanaks sai ja mõnevõrra lapsikuks jäi, avaldus see kõrge enesehinnang teatud määral taas, nii et juhendades Naatanit selle evangeeliumi ümberkirjutamisel, mis nüüd tema nime kannab, ei kõhelnud elatanud apostel end pidevalt nimetamast „jüngriks, keda Jeesus armastas”. Arvestades asjaolu, et Johannes oli Jeesuse lähedase sõbra seisundile lähemal kui ükski teine surelik maa peal, oli Jeesus valinud Johannese oma isiklikuks esindajaks nii paljudes küsimustes, et pole midagi imestada, et too hakkas end pidama „jüngriks, keda Jeesus armastas”, sest ta teadis päris kindlasti, et ta oli jünger, keda Jeesus oli nii sageli usaldanud.

139:4.4 (1554.2) John Zebedee had many lovely traits of character, but one which was not so lovely was his inordinate but usually well-concealed conceit. His long association with Jesus made many and great changes in his character. This conceit was greatly lessened, but after growing old and becoming more or less childish, this self-esteem reappeared to a certain extent, so that, when engaged in directing Nathan in the writing of the Gospel which now bears his name, the aged apostle did not hesitate repeatedly to refer to himself as the “disciple whom Jesus loved.” In view of the fact that John came nearer to being the chum of Jesus than any other earth mortal, that he was his chosen personal representative in so many matters, it is not strange that he should have come to regard himself as the “disciple whom Jesus loved” since he most certainly knew he was the disciple whom Jesus so frequently trusted.

Johannese tugevaim iseloomujoon oli tema usaldusväärsus — ta oli täpne ja julge, ustav ja andunud. Tema suurim nõrkus oli see loomuomane eneseuhkus. Ta oli oma pere noorim liige ja noorim ka apostlirühmas. Võib-olla oli ta veidi hellitatud, võib-olla oli ta veidi liiga palju oma tahtmist saanud. Ent hilisematel eluaastatel oli Johannes hoopis teistsugune inimene kui see ennastimetlev ja meelevaldne noormees, kes ühines Jeesuse apostlitega juba kahekümne nelja aastasena.

139:4.5 (1554.3) The strongest trait in John’s character was his dependability; he was prompt and courageous, faithful and devoted. His greatest weakness was this characteristic conceit. He was the youngest member of his father’s family and the youngest of the apostolic group. Perhaps he was just a bit spoiled; maybe he had been humored slightly too much. But the John of after years was a very different type of person than the self-admiring and arbitrary young man who joined the ranks of Jesus’ apostles when he was twenty-four.

Johannes hindas Jeesuses kõige enam Meistri armastust ja isetust. Need jooned avaldasid talle nii sügavat muljet, et armastus ja vennalik andumus sai valdavaks kogu tema hilisemas elus. Ta rääkis armastusest ja kirjutas armastusest. Sellest Kõuepojast sai „armastuse apostel” ning kui vanal apostlil, kes ei suutnud Efesoses enam pulti tõusta ja jutlustada, vaid keda tuli kirikusse kandetooliga viia, paluti teenistuse lõpus uskujatele mõned sõnad lausuda, ütles ta ainult: „Mu väikesed lapsed, armastage üksteist.”

139:4.6 (1554.4) Those characteristics of Jesus which John most appreciated were the Master’s love and unselfishness; these traits made such an impression on him that his whole subsequent life became dominated by the sentiment of love and brotherly devotion. He talked about love and wrote about love. This “son of thunder” became the “apostle of love”; and at Ephesus, when the aged bishop was no longer able to stand in the pulpit and preach but had to be carried to church in a chair, and when at the close of the service he was asked to say a few words to the believers, for years his only utterance was, “My little children, love one another.”

Johannes rääkis vähe, välja arvatud siis, kui ta oli ärritunud. Ta mõtles palju, kuid kõneles vähe. Vanemaks saades muutus tema meelelaad leebemaks, vaoshoitumaks, kuid ta ei saanud kunagi üle oma soovimatusest kõnelda; ta ei saanudki päriselt oma kinnisusest võitu. Ent talle oli antud tähelepanuväärne loov kujutlusvõime.

139:4.7 (1554.5) John was a man of few words except when his temper was aroused. He thought much but said little. As he grew older, his temper became more subdued, better controlled, but he never overcame his disinclination to talk; he never fully mastered this reticence. But he was gifted with a remarkable and creative imagination.

Johannesel oli veel üks tahk, mida sellest vaiksest ja sissepoole vaatavast mehest poleks osanud oodata. Ta oli mõnevõrra kitsarinnaline usklik ja ülemäära sallimatu. Selles suhtes sarnanes ta väga Jaakobusele — nad mõlemad tahtsid lugupidamatute samaarlaste peale taevast tuld alla kutsuda. Kui Johannes kohtas Jeesuse nimel jutlustavaid võõraid, keelas ta neil kohe seda teha. Kuid ta ei olnud ainus kaheteistkümnest, keda rikkus niisugune kõrge enesehinnang ja üleolekutunne.

139:4.8 (1555.1) There was another side to John that one would not expect to find in this quiet and introspective type. He was somewhat bigoted and inordinately intolerant. In this respect he and James were much alike — they both wanted to call down fire from heaven on the heads of the disrespectful Samaritans. When John encountered some strangers teaching in Jesus’ name, he promptly forbade them. But he was not the only one of the twelve who was tainted with this kind of self-esteem and superiority consciousness.

Johannese elu mõjutas väga palju see, et ta nägi Jeesust kodutult ringi liikumas, kuigi ta oli oma ema ja perekonna eest hoolt kandnud. Johannes tundis Jeesusele sügavalt kaasa ka sellepärast, et tema pere ei suutnud teda mõista ja oli järk-järgult temast eemaldumas. Kogu see olukord koos asjaoluga, et Jeesus allus oma väikseimateski soovides alati taevase Isa tahtele ja igapäevaelus teda kõhklematult usaldas, avaldas Johannesele nii sügavat muljet, et kutsus tema iseloomus esile märgatavad püsivad muutused, mis avaldusid hiljem kogu tema ülejäänud elu.

139:4.9 (1555.2) John’s life was tremendously influenced by the sight of Jesus’ going about without a home as he knew how faithfully he had made provision for the care of his mother and family. John also deeply sympathized with Jesus because of his family’s failure to understand him, being aware that they were gradually withdrawing from him. This entire situation, together with Jesus’ ever deferring his slightest wish to the will of the Father in heaven and his daily life of implicit trust, made such a profound impression on John that it produced marked and permanent changes in his character, changes which manifested themselves throughout his entire subsequent life.

Johannesel oli külmaverelist ja uljast julgust, mida leidus üksikutel apostlitel. Ta oli ainus apostel, kes järgnes Jeesusele tema vahistamisööl ja söandas minna oma Meistriga kaasa päris surma palge ette. Ta oli kohal ja käeulatuses Jeesuse viimse maise tunnini ning täitis talle seoses Jeesuse emaga usaldatud ülesannet ning oli valmis vastu võtma täiendavaid korraldusi, mis Meister oma sureliku eksistentsi viimsetel hetkedel talle võis anda. Üks on täiesti kindel, Johannest võis jäägitult usaldada. Kaheteistkümne söögilauas istus Johannes tavaliselt Jeesuse paremal käel. Ta oli esimene kaheteistkümnest, kes tõeliselt ja täielikult ülestõusmist uskus, ning esimene, kes Meistri ära tundis, kui too pärast ülestõusmist järvekaldal nende juurde tuli.

139:4.10 (1555.3) John had a cool and daring courage which few of the other apostles possessed. He was the one apostle who followed right along with Jesus the night of his arrest and dared to accompany his Master into the very jaws of death. He was present and near at hand right up to the last earthly hour and was found faithfully carrying out his trust with regard to Jesus’ mother and ready to receive such additional instructions as might be given during the last moments of the Master’s mortal existence. One thing is certain, John was thoroughly dependable. John usually sat on Jesus’ right hand when the twelve were at meat. He was the first of the twelve really and fully to believe in the resurrection, and he was the first to recognize the Master when he came to them on the seashore after his resurrection.

See Sebedeuse poeg oli ristiusuliikumise varases tegevuses Peetrusega väga tihedalt seotud ning sai Jeruusalemma koguduse üheks põhitoetajaks. Nelipühal oli ta Peetruse abiline ja parem käsi.

139:4.11 (1555.4) This son of Zebedee was very closely associated with Peter in the early activities of the Christian movement, becoming one of the chief supporters of the Jerusalem church. He was the right-hand support of Peter on the day of Pentecost.

Aastaid pärast Jaakobuse märtrisurma abiellus Johannes oma venna lesega. Tema elu viimasel kahekümnel aastal hoolitses tema eest ta armastav pojatütar.

139:4.12 (1555.5) Several years after the martyrdom of James, John married his brother’s widow. The last twenty years of his life he was cared for by a loving granddaughter.

Johannes oli mitu korda vangis ning ta pagendati neljaks aastaks Patmose saarele, kuni Roomas tuli võimule uus keiser. Kui Johannes poleks olnud taktitundeline ja tark, oleks ta kindlasti hukatud nagu ta otsekohesem vend Jaakobus. Aastate möödudes õppis Johannes koos Issanda venna Jaakobusega selgeks oskuse tsiviilkohtu ees targalt lepitust otsida. Nad leidsid, et „leebe vastus pöörab vaenu kõrvale”. Nad õppisid ka esitama kirikut mitte „taevariigina”, vaid „inimkonnale ühiskondlike teenuste osutamisele pühendunud vaimse vennaskonnana”. Nende õpetus oli pigem armastavast teenimisest kui valitsevast võimust — kuningriigist ja kuningast.

139:4.13 (1555.6) John was in prison several times and was banished to the Isle of Patmos for a period of four years until another emperor came to power in Rome. Had not John been tactful and sagacious, he would undoubtedly have been killed as was his more outspoken brother James. As the years passed, John, together with James the Lord’s brother, learned to practice wise conciliation when they appeared before the civil magistrates. They found that a “soft answer turns away wrath.” They also learned to represent the church as a “spiritual brotherhood devoted to the social service of mankind” rather than as “the kingdom of heaven.” They taught loving service rather than ruling power — kingdom and king.

Patmosel ajutises pagenduses olles pani Johannes kirja ilmutuse, mis on jõudnud teieni tunduvalt lühemana ja moonutatuna. Selles Johannese Ilmutuses on säilinud vaid fragmente suurest ilmutusest, millest pärast Johannese üleskirjutust on mõned mahukad osad kaotsi läinud, mõned osad välja jäetud. See on säilinud ainult fragmentidena ja muudetud kujul.

139:4.14 (1555.7) When in temporary exile on Patmos, John wrote the Book of Revelation, which you now have in greatly abridged and distorted form. This Book of Revelation contains the surviving fragments of a great revelation, large portions of which were lost, other portions of which were removed, subsequent to John’s writing. It is preserved in only fragmentary and adulterated form.

Johannes rändas palju ringi, tegi lakkamatult tööd ja pärast Aasia koguduste piiskopiks saamist jäi elama Efesosse. Ta juhendas oma kaaslase Naatani tööd, kes kirjutas Efesoses üles niinimetatud Johannese evangeeliumi, kui Johannes ise oli juba üheksakümne üheksa aastane. Johannes Sebedeus oli kaheteistkümne apostli hulgas see, kellest hiljem sai väljapaistev teoloog. Ta suri 103. a pKr saja ühe aastasena Efesoses loomulikku surma.

139:4.15 (1555.8) John traveled much, labored incessantly, and after becoming bishop of the Asia churches, settled down at Ephesus. He directed his associate, Nathan, in the writing of the so-called “Gospel according to John,” at Ephesus, when he was ninety-nine years old. Of all the twelve apostles, John Zebedee eventually became the outstanding theologian. He died a natural death at Ephesus in A.D. 103 when he was one hundred and one years of age.

5. Uudishimulik Filippus

5. Philip the Curious

Filippus oli viiendana valitud apostel, kes kutsuti kaasa siis, kui Jeesus, kes oli koos oma esimese nelja apostliga kohtunud Jordani ääres Johannesega, suundus Galilea linna Kaanasse. Filippus oli elanud Betsaidas ja Jeesust juba mõnda aega tundnud. Kuid sellest, et Jeesus on tõeliselt suur inimene, sai ta aru alles tol päeval Jordani orus, kui Jeesus ütles talle: „Järgi mind”. Filippust mõjutas mõnevõrra ka asjaolu, et Andreas, Peetrus, Jaakobus ja Johannes olid Jeesust Vabastajana tunnistanud.

139:5.1 (1556.1) Philip was the fifth apostle to be chosen, being called when Jesus and his first four apostles were on their way from John’s rendezvous on the Jordan to Cana of Galilee. Since he lived at Bethsaida, Philip had for some time known of Jesus, but it had not occurred to him that Jesus was a really great man until that day in the Jordan valley when he said, “Follow me.” Philip was also somewhat influenced by the fact that Andrew, Peter, James, and John had accepted Jesus as the Deliverer.

Filippus oli apostlitega ühinedes kahekümne seitsme aastane; ta oli hiljuti abiellunud, kuid lapsi tal tol ajal veel polnud. Apostlid andsid talle hüüdnimeks uudishimulik. Filippusele tuli alati kõike selgitada. Näis, et ta ei suutnud ühessegi väitesse eriti sügavale tungida. Ta polnud just kõva peaga, kuid tal puudus kujutlusvõime. Vähene kujutlusvõime oli tema iseloomu suur puudus. Ta oli lihtne ja asjalik inimene.

139:5.2 (1556.2) Philip was twenty-seven years of age when he joined the apostles; he had recently been married, but he had no children at this time. The nickname which the apostles gave him signified “curiosity.” Philip was always wanting to be shown. He never seemed to see very far into any proposition. He was not necessarily dull, but he lacked imagination. This lack of imagination was the great weakness of his character. He was a commonplace and matter-of-fact individual.

Kui apostlite töökorraldus sisse seati, pandi Filippus majandusülemaks. Tema ülesanne oli hoolitseda selle eest, et neil oleks alati piisavalt toiduvarusid, ja ta oli hea majandusülem. Tema tugevaimad iseloomujooned olid tema süstemaatilisus ja põhjalikkus: ta oli ühtaegu arvestav ja süstemaatiline.

139:5.3 (1556.3) When the apostles were organized for service, Philip was made steward; it was his duty to see that they were at all times supplied with provisions. And he was a good steward. His strongest characteristic was his methodical thoroughness; he was both mathematical and systematic.

Filippus oli kasvanud seitsmeliikmelises peres, kus oli kolm poissi ja neli tüdrukut. Ta oli vanuselt teine ja pärast ülestõusmist ristis ta kogu oma pere kuningriiki. Filippuse perekonnas olid kõik kalurid. Ta isa oli väga võimekas mees, sügav juurdleja, kuid ema keskpärasest suguvõsast. Filippuselt ei oodatudki suuri tegusid, kuid ta võis teha väikesi asju suurelt, teha neid hästi ja kiiduväärselt. Nelja aasta jooksul juhtus vaid mõnel korral, et kõigi jaoks polnud piisavalt toitu varutud. Isegi nende eluviisiga kaasnenud paljud erakordsed vajadused tabasid teda harva ootamatult. Apostlipere toitlustusosakonda juhiti arukalt ja majanduslikult.

139:5.4 (1556.4) Philip came from a family of seven, three boys and four girls. He was next to the oldest, and after the resurrection he baptized his entire family into the kingdom. Philip’s people were fisherfolk. His father was a very able man, a deep thinker, but his mother was of a very mediocre family. Philip was not a man who could be expected to do big things, but he was a man who could do little things in a big way, do them well and acceptably. Only a few times in four years did he fail to have food on hand to satisfy the needs of all. Even the many emergency demands attendant upon the life they lived seldom found him unprepared. The commissary department of the apostolic family was intelligently and efficiently managed.

Filippuse tugevaks küljeks oli tema vankumatu usaldusväärsus, tema iseloomu nõrkuseks kujutlusvõime täielik puudumine, oskamatus kahte ja kahte kokku liites vastuseks neli saada. Matemaatiliselt suutis ta abstraktselt mõelda, kuid oli ilma konstruktiivse kujutlusvõimeta. Teatav kujutlusvõime puudus tal peaaegu täielikult. Ta oli tüüpiline lihtne tavaline inimene. Nende hulkade seas, kes tulid Jeesuse õpetusi ja jutlusi kuulama, oli temasuguseid väga palju ja neile pakkus suurt lohutust näha endasugust Meistri nõukogus austusväärsele positsioonile tõstetuna. Neile andis julgust asjaolu, et üks nende endi seast oli juba leidnud kuningriigi asjatoimetustes kõrge koha. Jeesus õppis lähemalt tundma sedaliiki inimmeelt, kuulates kannatlikult Filippuse rumalaid küsimusi ja täites nii sageli oma majandusülema palvet, et „talle selgitataks”.

139:5.5 (1556.5) The strong point about Philip was his methodical reliability; the weak point in his make-up was his utter lack of imagination, the absence of the ability to put two and two together to obtain four. He was mathematical in the abstract but not constructive in his imagination. He was almost entirely lacking in certain types of imagination. He was the typical everyday and commonplace average man. There were a great many such men and women among the multitudes who came to hear Jesus teach and preach, and they derived great comfort from observing one like themselves elevated to an honored position in the councils of the Master; they derived courage from the fact that one like themselves had already found a high place in the affairs of the kingdom. And Jesus learned much about the way some human minds function as he so patiently listened to Philip’s foolish questions and so many times complied with his steward’s request to “be shown.”

Filippus imetles Jeesuses alati tema ammendamatut heldust. Filippus ei leidnud Jeesuses kunagi midagi, mis oleks andnud tunnistust väiklusest, kitsidusest või ihnsusest ning ta jumaldas tema püsivat heldekäelisust.

139:5.6 (1556.6) The one quality about Jesus which Philip so continuously admired was the Master’s unfailing generosity. Never could Philip find anything in Jesus which was small, niggardly, or stingy, and he worshiped this ever-present and unfailing liberality.

Filippuse isiksuses oli vähe sellist, mis oleks võinud muljet avaldada. Tema kohta öeldi sageli: „Filippus Betsaidast, kus elavad ka Andreas ja Peetrus.” Tal peaaegu puudus tähelepanuvõime, ta ei suutnud olukorra dramaatilisust mõista. Ta ei olnud pessimistlik, ta oli lihtsalt proosaline. Tal puudus suures osas ka vaimse taipamise võime. Ta ei kõhelnud katkestamast Meistri sügavmõttelist juttu oma pealtnäha rumala küsimusega. Ent Jeesus ei teinud talle kunagi selle mõtlematuse pärast etteheiteid, ta oli Filippusega kannatlik ja suhtus mõistvalt tema võimetusse õpetuse sügavamaid tähendusi näha. Jeesus teadis hästi, et kui ta kordki Filippust nende tüütute küsimuste pärast noomib, haavab ta sellega mehe ausat hinge ja solvab teda sedavõrd, et ta ei söanda enam kunagi küsimusi esitada. Jeesus teadis, et tema kosmosemaailmades on miljardeid samasuguseid aeglase mõtlemisega surelikke ning ta tahtis neid kõiki julgustada, et nad temale loodaksid ja julgeksid alati oma küsimuste ja probleemidega tema juurde tulla. Jeesust huvitasidki tegelikult palju enam Filippuse rumalad küsimused kui jutlused, mida ta pidas. Jeesus tundis ülimat huvi inimeste, igasuguste inimeste vastu.

139:5.7 (1557.1) There was little about Philip’s personality that was impressive. He was often spoken of as “Philip of Bethsaida, the town where Andrew and Peter live.” He was almost without discerning vision; he was unable to grasp the dramatic possibilities of a given situation. He was not pessimistic; he was simply prosaic. He was also greatly lacking in spiritual insight. He would not hesitate to interrupt Jesus in the midst of one of the Master’s most profound discourses to ask an apparently foolish question. But Jesus never reprimanded him for such thoughtlessness; he was patient with him and considerate of his inability to grasp the deeper meanings of the teaching. Jesus well knew that, if he once rebuked Philip for asking these annoying questions, he would not only wound this honest soul, but such a reprimand would so hurt Philip that he would never again feel free to ask questions. Jesus knew that on his worlds of space there were untold billions of similar slow-thinking mortals, and he wanted to encourage them all to look to him and always to feel free to come to him with their questions and problems. After all, Jesus was really more interested in Philip’s foolish questions than in the sermon he might be preaching. Jesus was supremely interested in men, all kinds of men.

Majandusülemast apostel ei olnud hea avalike kõnede pidaja, kuid isiklikus töös oli ta väga veenev ja edukas. Teda polnud kerge heidutada; ta oli töökas ja väga visa kõiges, mida ette võttis. Tal oli suurepärane ja haruldane oskus öelda: „Tulge!” Kui tema esimene pöördunu Naatanael tahtis Jeesuse ja Naatsareti väärtuste ja puuduste üle vaidlema hakata, vastas Filippus talle tabavalt: „Tule ja vaata.” Ta ei olnud dogmaatiline jutlustaja, kes manitses kuulajaid „minema” — tegema seda ja teist. Kõik oma töös tekkivad olukorrad lahendas ta kutsega „Tule — tule minuga, ma näitan sulle teed.” Ning see meetod on igat liiki õpetustes igal etapil ühtviisi tõhus. Isegi lapsevanemad võiksid Filippuselt õppida, et lastele ei tohiks öelda „mine tee seda ja teist”, vaid pigem kutsuda „lähme, me näitame sulle, kuidas on parem, ja teeme seda koos”.

139:5.8 (1557.2) The apostolic steward was not a good public speaker, but he was a very persuasive and successful personal worker. He was not easily discouraged; he was a plodder and very tenacious in anything he undertook. He had that great and rare gift of saying, “Come.” When his first convert, Nathaniel, wanted to argue about the merits and demerits of Jesus and Nazareth, Philip’s effective reply was, “Come and see.” He was not a dogmatic preacher who exhorted his hearers to “Go” — do this and do that. He met all situations as they arose in his work with “Come” — “come with me; I will show you the way.” And that is always the effective technique in all forms and phases of teaching. Even parents may learn from Philip the better way of saying to their children not “Go do this and go do that,” but rather, “Come with us while we show and share with you the better way.”

Filippuse võimetus kohaneda uue olukorraga ilmnes selgelt siis, kui kreeklased tulid Jeruusalemmas tema juurde ja ütlesid: „Härra, me soovime Jeesust näha.” Igale juudile, kes selle küsimuse oleks esitanud, oleks Filippus öelnud: „Tulge.” Need olid aga võõramaalased ja Filippus ei mäletanud, et ta oleks kõrgemalt selliseks puhuks juhiseid saanud; talle ei tulnud pähe midagi targemat kui pidada nõu oma ülema Andreasega, ning seejärel saatsid need kaks Jeesuse järele küsinud kreeklased Jeesuse juurde. Nii juhtus ka siis, kui Filippus läks Samaariasse jutlustama ja uskujaid ristima, nagu Meister oli juhendanud: ta hoidus käsi panemast pöördunute peale Tõe Vaimu saamise märgiks. Seda tegid Peetrus ja Johannes, kes tulid peagi Jeruusalemma emakirikust tema tööd vaatama.

139:5.9 (1557.3) The inability of Philip to adapt himself to a new situation was well shown when the Greeks came to him at Jerusalem, saying: “Sir, we desire to see Jesus.” Now Philip would have said to any Jew asking such a question, “Come.” But these men were foreigners, and Philip could remember no instructions from his superiors regarding such matters; so the only thing he could think to do was to consult the chief, Andrew, and then they both escorted the inquiring Greeks to Jesus. Likewise, when he went into Samaria preaching and baptizing believers, as he had been instructed by his Master, he refrained from laying hands on his converts in token of their having received the Spirit of Truth. This was done by Peter and John, who presently came down from Jerusalem to observe his work in behalf of the mother church.

Meistri surm oli Filippusele ränk katsumusaeg, ta osales kaheteistkümne töö ümberkorraldamises ja oli esimene, kes läks võitma kuningriigile hingi juurde mittejuutide seast. Ta töötas väga edukalt nii samaarlaste heaks kui ka kogu oma hilisemas teenistuses evangeeliumi nimel.

139:5.10 (1557.4) Philip went on through the trying times of the Master’s death, participated in the reorganization of the twelve, and was the first to go forth to win souls for the kingdom outside of the immediate Jewish ranks, being most successful in his work for the Samaritans and in all his subsequent labors in behalf of the gospel.

Filippuse naine, naiskorpuse töökas liige, osales hiljem, pärast Jeruusalemmas toimunud tagakiusamise eest põgenemist, aktiivselt oma mehe evangelistitöös. Ta oli kartmatu naine, kes isegi Filippuse risti all seistes ergutas teda kuulutama oma mõrvaritele häid uudiseid, ja kui mehe jõud rauges, hakkas ta jutustama pääsemist Jeesusesse uskumise kaudu ning vaikis alles siis, kui raevunud juudid talle kallale tormasid ja ta kividega surnuks pildusid. Nende vanim tütar Lea jätkas nende tööd ja temast sai hiljem Hierapolise kuulus naisprohvet.

139:5.11 (1557.5) Philip’s wife, who was an efficient member of the women’s corps, became actively associated with her husband in his evangelistic work after their flight from the Jerusalem persecutions. His wife was a fearless woman. She stood at the foot of Philip’s cross encouraging him to proclaim the glad tidings even to his murderers, and when his strength failed, she began the recital of the story of salvation by faith in Jesus and was silenced only when the irate Jews rushed upon her and stoned her to death. Their eldest daughter, Leah, continued their work, later on becoming the renowned prophetess of Hierapolis.

Kaheteistkümne kunagine majandusülem Filippus oli kuningriigis vägev mees ja võitis kõikjal, kuhu ta läks, hingi enda poole. Lõpuks löödi ta oma usu pärast risti ja maeti Hierapolisesse.

139:5.12 (1558.1) Philip, the onetime steward of the twelve, was a mighty man in the kingdom, winning souls wherever he went; and he was finally crucified for his faith and buried at Hierapolis.

6. Aus Naatanael

6. Honest Nathaniel

Naatanaeli, kuuenda ja viimase Meistri enda valitud apostli tõi Jeesuse juurde ta sõber Filippus. Ta oli koos Filippusega mitmes ärilises ettevõtmises osalenud ja Jeesusega kohtudes parajasti koos temaga teel Ristija Johannest vaatama.

139:6.1 (1558.2) Nathaniel, the sixth and last of the apostles to be chosen by the Master himself, was brought to Jesus by his friend Philip. He had been associated in several business enterprises with Philip and, with him, was on the way down to see John the Baptist when they encountered Jesus.

Kui Naatanael apostlitega ühines, oli ta kahekümne viie aastane ja rühmas peaaegu kõige noorem. Ta oli oma seitsmeliikmelise pere noorim liige, vallaline ning ainuke tugi oma vanadele ja haigetele vanematele, kellega koos ta Kaanas elas; ta vennad ja õed olid kas abiellunud või surnud ja elasid mujal. Naatanael ja Juudas Iskariot olid kaheteistkümnest kõige haritumad. Naatanael oli kavatsenud kaupmeheks hakata.

139:6.2 (1558.3) When Nathaniel joined the apostles, he was twenty-five years old and was the next to the youngest of the group. He was the youngest of a family of seven, was unmarried, and the only support of aged and infirm parents, with whom he lived at Cana; his brothers and sister were either married or deceased, and none lived there. Nathaniel and Judas Iscariot were the two best educated men among the twelve. Nathaniel had thought to become a merchant.

Naatanael ei saanud oma hüüdnime Jeesuselt, vaid üksteist ülejäänud apostlit hakkasid peagi teda ausaks ja siiraks nimetama. Ta oli „salakavaluseta”. Ja see oli tema suur voorus: ta oli aus ja siiras. Tema iseloomu nõrkuseks oli uhkus; ta oli oma perekonna, oma linna, oma hea nime ja oma rahva üle väga uhke, mis on kõik kiiduväärt, kui sellega ei minda liiale. Naatanael aga kaldus oma isiklikes eelarvamustes äärmustesse. Ta kippus otsustama inimeste üle oma isiklike arvamuste alusel. Ta küsis veel enne Jeesusega kohtumist: „Mis võib küll Naatsaretist head tulla?” Ent hoolimata uhkusest ei olnud Naatanael kangekaelne. Kui ta juba Jeesusele otsa oli vaadanud, võttis ta oma sõnad ruttu tagasi.

139:6.3 (1558.4) Jesus did not himself give Nathaniel a nickname, but the twelve soon began to speak of him in terms that signified honesty, sincerity. He was “without guile.” And this was his great virtue; he was both honest and sincere. The weakness of his character was his pride; he was very proud of his family, his city, his reputation, and his nation, all of which is commendable if it is not carried too far. But Nathaniel was inclined to go to extremes with his personal prejudices. He was disposed to prejudge individuals in accordance with his personal opinions. He was not slow to ask the question, even before he had met Jesus, “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?” But Nathaniel was not obstinate, even if he was proud. He was quick to reverse himself when he once looked into Jesus’ face.

Naatanael oli mitmes mõttes kaheteistkümnest kõige geniaalsem. Ta oli apostlist filosoof ja unistaja, kuid väga praktiline unistaja. Sügava filosoofilisuse perioodid vaheldusid tal haruldase ja tembutava naljatlemisega, õiges tujus olles oli ta ilmselt kaheteistkümne hulgas parim jutuvestja. Jeesusele meeldis väga kuulata nii Naatanaeli tõsiseid kui ka naljajutte. Naatanaeli suhtumine Jeesusesse ja kuningriiki muutus üha tõsisemaks, kuid iseennast ei võtnud ta kunagi tõsiselt.

139:6.4 (1558.5) In many respects Nathaniel was the odd genius of the twelve. He was the apostolic philosopher and dreamer, but he was a very practical sort of dreamer. He alternated between seasons of profound philosophy and periods of rare and droll humor; when in the proper mood, he was probably the best storyteller among the twelve. Jesus greatly enjoyed hearing Nathaniel discourse on things both serious and frivolous. Nathaniel progressively took Jesus and the kingdom more seriously, but never did he take himself seriously.

Kõik apostlid armastasid ja austasid Naatanaeli ja ta sai nende kõigiga suurepäraselt läbi, välja arvatud Juudas Iskariotiga. Juuda arvates ei suhtunud Naatanael oma apostliseisusse piisavalt tõsiselt ning kord võttis ta isegi südame rindu ja läks Jeesuse juurde, et Naatanaeli peale kaevata. Jeesus vastas: „Juudas, vaata hoolega, mida sa teed, ära oma volitustest üle astu. Kellel meist on õigus oma venna üle kohut mõista? Isa tahe ei ole see, et ta lapsed ainult elu tõsisemast poolest osa saaksid. Ma kordan taas: ma tulin selleks, et mu lihased vennad rohkem elust rõõmu tunneksid. Mine nüüd, Juudas, ja täida sulle usaldatud ülesannet hästi, aga las su vend Naatanael annab ise Jumala ees aru.” Ning see ja paljud teised samalaadsed kogemused püsisid Juudas Iskarioti enesepettuses elavas südames veel kaua.

139:6.5 (1558.6) The apostles all loved and respected Nathaniel, and he got along with them splendidly, excepting Judas Iscariot. Judas did not think Nathaniel took his apostleship sufficiently seriously and once had the temerity to go secretly to Jesus and lodge complaint against him. Said Jesus: “Judas, watch carefully your steps; do not overmagnify your office. Who of us is competent to judge his brother? It is not the Father’s will that his children should partake only of the serious things of life. Let me repeat: I have come that my brethren in the flesh may have joy, gladness, and life more abundantly. Go then, Judas, and do well that which has been intrusted to you but leave Nathaniel, your brother, to give account of himself to God.” And the memory of this, with that of many similar experiences, long lived in the self-deceiving heart of Judas Iscariot.

Sageli juhtus, et kui Jeesus oli Peetruse, Jaakobuse ja Johannesega mäel, tekkisid apostlite vahel pinged ja segadused ning isegi Andreas kõhkles, mida oma lohutamatutele vendadele öelda, leevendas Naatanael pingeid mõne filosoofilise ütluse või naljaga — ja tal olid head naljad.

139:6.6 (1559.1) Many times, when Jesus was away on the mountain with Peter, James, and John, and things were becoming tense and tangled among the apostles, when even Andrew was in doubt about what to say to his disconsolate brethren, Nathaniel would relieve the tension by a bit of philosophy or a flash of humor; good humor, too.

Naatanaeli ülesanne oli hoolitseda kaheteistkümne apostli perekondade eest. Ta puudus sageli apostlite nõupidamistelt, sest kuulnud, et keegi tema hoolealustest on haigestunud või et on muud erakorralist juhtunud, läks ta aega viitmata sellesse majja. Kaksteist apostlit võisid olla kindlad, et nende perekondade heaolu on Naatanaeli kätes kaitstud.

139:6.7 (1559.2) Nathaniel’s duty was to look after the families of the twelve. He was often absent from the apostolic councils, for when he heard that sickness or anything out of the ordinary had happened to one of his charges, he lost no time in getting to that home. The twelve rested securely in the knowledge that their families’ welfare was safe in the hands of Nathaniel.

Naatanael austas kõige enam Jeesuse sallivust. Ta mõtiskles alati Inimese Poja eelarvamustevaba ja lahke osavõtlikkuse üle.

139:6.8 (1559.3) Nathaniel most revered Jesus for his tolerance. He never grew weary of contemplating the broadmindedness and generous sympathy of the Son of Man.

Naatanaeli isa Bartolomeus suri varsti pärast nelipüha, misjärel suundus see apostel Mesopotaamiasse ja Indiasse kuningriigi rõõmusõnumit kuulutama ning uskujaid ristima. Ta vennad ei saanudki teada, mis nende kunagisest filosoofist, poeedist ja naljasõbrast sai. Kuid ka tema oli kuningriigis suur mees ja tegi Meistri õpetuste levitamiseks palju ära, ehkki ei osalenud hilisema ristiusukiriku ülesehitamisel. Naatanael suri Indias.

139:6.9 (1559.4) Nathaniel’s father (Bartholomew) died shortly after Pentecost, after which this apostle went into Mesopotamia and India proclaiming the glad tidings of the kingdom and baptizing believers. His brethren never knew what became of their onetime philosopher, poet, and humorist. But he also was a great man in the kingdom and did much to spread his Master’s teachings, even though he did not participate in the organization of the subsequent Christian church. Nathaniel died in India.

7. Matteus Leevi

7. Matthew Levi

Seitsmenda apostli Matteuse oli valinud Andreas. Matteus kuulus maksukogujate ehk tölnerite perekonda ja oli ise maksukoguja Kapernaumas, kus ta elas. Ta oli kolmekümne ühe aastane, abielus, ning tal oli neli last. Ta oli üsna jõukas mees, ainus apostlikorpusest, kellel üldse varandust oli. Ta oli hea majandusmees ja suhtleja, oskas suurepäraselt sõpru leida ning sai hästi läbi väga erinevate inimestega.

139:7.1 (1559.5) Matthew, the seventh apostle, was chosen by Andrew. Matthew belonged to a family of tax gatherers, or publicans, but was himself a customs collector in Capernaum, where he lived. He was thirty-one years old and married and had four children. He was a man of moderate wealth, the only one of any means belonging to the apostolic corps. He was a good business man, a good social mixer, and was gifted with the ability to make friends and to get along smoothly with a great variety of people.

Andreas määras Matteuse apostlite esindajaks rahalistes küsimustes. Ta oli apostlirühma eelarveülem ja avalikkusega suhtleja. Ta tundis hästi inimloomust ja oli tõhus selgitustöö tegija. Tema isiksust on raske ette kujutada, kuid ta oli väga tõsimeelne jünger ning uskus Jeesuse missiooni ja kuningriigi tulekusse üha kindlamalt. Jeesus ei andnud Leevile mingit hüüdnime, kuid kaasapostlid nimetasid teda enamasti Rahahankijaks.

139:7.2 (1559.6) Andrew appointed Matthew the financial representative of the apostles. In a way he was the fiscal agent and publicity spokesman for the apostolic organization. He was a keen judge of human nature and a very efficient propagandist. His is a personality difficult to visualize, but he was a very earnest disciple and an increasing believer in the mission of Jesus and in the certainty of the kingdom. Jesus never gave Levi a nickname, but his fellow apostles commonly referred to him as the “money-getter.”

Leevi tugev külg oli tema kogu hingest üritusele pühendumine. Endine maksukoguja oli Jeesusele tohutult tänulik, et ta koos apostlitega oli temasuguse tölneri enda hulka vastu võtnud. Ülejäänud apostlitel, eriti seloot Siimonil ja Juudas Iskariotil, kulus küll veidi aega, enne kui nad tölneri viibimisega endi seas leppisid. Matteuse nõrkuseks oli tema lühinägelik ja materialistlik ellusuhtumine. Ent kuude möödudes jõudis ta kõiges selles tublisti edasi. Muidugi pidi ta paljudest väga väärtuslikest õppetundidest puuduma, sest tema ülesanne oli hoida varalaegas täidetuna.

139:7.3 (1559.7) Levi’s strong point was his wholehearted devotion to the cause. That he, a publican, had been taken in by Jesus and his apostles was the cause for overwhelming gratitude on the part of the former revenue collector. However, it required some little time for the rest of the apostles, especially Simon Zelotes and Judas Iscariot, to become reconciled to the publican’s presence in their midst. Matthew’s weakness was his shortsighted and materialistic viewpoint of life. But in all these matters he made great progress as the months went by. He, of course, had to be absent from many of the most precious seasons of instruction as it was his duty to keep the treasury replenished.

Matteus hindas Meistris kõige enam tema andestavat meelelaadi. Ta rääkis alati, et Jumala leidmiseks on vaja ainult usku. Ta tavatses rääkida taevariigist kui „sellest Jumala leidmise tööst”.

139:7.4 (1559.8) It was the Master’s forgiving disposition which Matthew most appreciated. He would never cease to recount that faith only was necessary in the business of finding God. He always liked to speak of the kingdom as “this business of finding God.”

Ehkki Matteusel lasus minevikukoorem, näitas ta end suurepärasest küljest ja aja möödudes hakkasid tema kaaslased tölneri tegevuse üle uhkust tundma. Ta oli üks apostleid, kes paljud Jeesuse ütlused kirja pani ning nende märkuste alusel koostas Isador Jeesuse ütluste ja tegevuste kohta hiljem teose, mida hakati nimetama Matteuse evangeeliumiks.

139:7.5 (1560.1) Though Matthew was a man with a past, he gave an excellent account of himself, and as time went on, his associates became proud of the publican’s performances. He was one of the apostles who made extensive notes on the sayings of Jesus, and these notes were used as the basis of Isador’s subsequent narrative of the sayings and doings of Jesus, which has become known as the Gospel according to Matthew.

Kapernauma ärimehe ja tollimaksude koguja Matteuse suur ja kasulik elu on toonud paljude tuhandete teiste ärimeeste, ametnike ja poliitikuteni kõigil hilisematel ajastutel Meistri kütkestavad sõnad „Järgi mind!” Matteus oli tegelikult kaval poliitik, kuid ta oli Jeesusele sügavalt ustav ja hoolitses ülima pühendumusega selle eest, et saabuva kuningriigi sõnumitoojatel oleks piisavalt raha.

139:7.6 (1560.2) The great and useful life of Matthew, the business man and customs collector of Capernaum, has been the means of leading thousands upon thousands of other business men, public officials, and politicians, down through the subsequent ages, also to hear that engaging voice of the Master saying, “Follow me.” Matthew really was a shrewd politician, but he was intensely loyal to Jesus and supremely devoted to the task of seeing that the messengers of the coming kingdom were adequately financed.

Matteuse kuulumine kaheteistkümne hulka hoidis kuningriigi uksed valla rusutud ja heidikutest hingedele, kes olid kaua olnud arvamusel, et usust saadav lohutus pole nende jaoks. Tõrjutud ja meeleheitel mehed ja naised tunglesid Jeesust kuulama ja ta ei tõuganud kedagi tagasi.

139:7.7 (1560.3) The presence of Matthew among the twelve was the means of keeping the doors of the kingdom wide open to hosts of downhearted and outcast souls who had regarded themselves as long since without the bounds of religious consolation. Outcast and despairing men and women flocked to hear Jesus, and he never turned one away.

Matteus võttis uskuvatelt jüngritelt ja Meistri õpetuste kohapeal kuulajatelt vastu vabatahtlikke annetusi, kuid ei küsinud kunagi avalikult rahvahulkade käest raha. Ta tegi kogu seda rahandusalast tööd vaikselt ja omal viisil, kogudes suurema osa rahast huvitatud usklike jõukamalt osalt. Ta annetas Meistri ja tema apostlite töö heaks peaaegu kogu oma tagasihoidliku varanduse, kuid peale Jeesuse ei saanud seda keegi kunagi teada. Matteus ei söandanud apostlite kassasse avalikult annetusi teha kartusest, et Jeesus ja nende kaaslased võivad tema raha roojaseks pidada, seepärast annetas ta palju teiste uskujate nimel. Esimestel kuudel, mil Matteus teadis, et tema viibimine nende seas on rohkem või vähem katsumus, tekkis tal tugev kiusatus neile teatada, et nende igapäevane leib on sageli ostetud tema raha eest, kuid ta ei andnud kiusatusele järele. Kui vahel väljendati tölneri vastu põlgust, põles Leevi soovist neile oma heldusest rääkida, kuid tal õnnestus alati suu pidada.

139:7.8 (1560.4) Matthew received freely tendered offerings from believing disciples and the immediate auditors of the Master’s teachings, but he never openly solicited funds from the multitudes. He did all his financial work in a quiet and personal way and raised most of the money among the more substantial class of interested believers. He gave practically the whole of his modest fortune to the work of the Master and his apostles, but they never knew of this generosity, save Jesus, who knew all about it. Matthew hesitated openly to contribute to the apostolic funds for fear that Jesus and his associates might regard his money as being tainted; so he gave much in the names of other believers. During the earlier months, when Matthew knew his presence among them was more or less of a trial, he was strongly tempted to let them know that his funds often supplied them with their daily bread, but he did not yield. When evidence of the disdain of the publican would become manifest, Levi would burn to reveal to them his generosity, but always he managed to keep still.

Kui nädala vajaduste katmiseks polnud piisavalt raha, kasutas Leevi sageli üsna palju oma isiklikke vahendeid. Mõnikord, kui Jeesuse õpetused teda iseäranis huvitasid, eelistas ta neid kuulama jääda, ehkki teadis, et peab raha, mis seetõttu hankimata jääb, oma taskust andma. Ent Leevi tahtis nii väga Jeesusele teada anda, et suur osa rahast tuleb tema taskust! Ta ei aimanud, et Meister teab seda hästi. Apostlid ei saanud surmatunnini aimu, et Matteus oli neile nii suur heategija, et selleks ajaks, kui ta läks pärast tagakiusamiste algust kuningriigi evangeeliumi kuulutama, oli ta peaaegu rahatu.

139:7.9 (1560.5) When the funds for the week were short of the estimated requirements, Levi would often draw heavily upon his own personal resources. Also, sometimes when he became greatly interested in Jesus’ teaching, he preferred to remain and hear the instruction, even though he knew he must personally make up for his failure to solicit the necessary funds. But Levi did so wish that Jesus might know that much of the money came from his pocket! He little realized that the Master knew all about it. The apostles all died without knowing that Matthew was their benefactor to such an extent that, when he went forth to proclaim the gospel of the kingdom after the beginning of the persecutions, he was practically penniless.

Kui need tagakiusamised sundisid uskujaid Jeruusalemmast lahkuma, rändas Matteus põhja poole, jutlustades kuningriigist ja ristides uskujaid. Ta ei teadnud, mis tema apostlitest kaaslastest on saanud, kuid liikus jutlustades ja ristides üha edasi läbi Süüria, Kapadookia, Galaatia, Bitüünia ja Traakia. Just Traakias, Lüsimahhias sepitsesid uskmatud juudid koos Rooma sõduritega tema surma. Ning see vaimselt uuestisündinud tölner suri võidukas pääsemise usus, mille ta oli omandanud Meistri õpetustest tolle maa peal viibimise ajal.

139:7.10 (1560.6) When these persecutions caused the believers to forsake Jerusalem, Matthew journeyed north, preaching the gospel of the kingdom and baptizing believers. He was lost to the knowledge of his former apostolic associates, but on he went, preaching and baptizing, through Syria, Cappadocia, Galatia, Bithynia, and Thrace. And it was in Thrace, at Lysimachia, that certain unbelieving Jews conspired with the Roman soldiers to encompass his death. And this regenerated publican died triumphant in the faith of a salvation he had so surely learned from the teachings of the Master during his recent sojourn on earth.

8. Toomas Didymos

8. Thomas Didymus

Tooma, kaheksanda apostli oli valinud Filippus. Hiljem hakati teda nimetama „uskmatuks Toomaks”, kuid ta kaasapostlid ei pidanud teda küll alatiseks kahtlejaks. Tõsi, ta oli loogilise, skeptilise meelelaadiga, kuid teda lähemalt tundvad inimesed ei saanud teda tema vapra ustavuse tõttu küll tühiseks skeptikuks pidada.

139:8.1 (1561.1) Thomas was the eighth apostle, and he was chosen by Philip. In later times he has become known as “doubting Thomas,” but his fellow apostles hardly looked upon him as a chronic doubter. True, his was a logical, skeptical type of mind, but he had a form of courageous loyalty which forbade those who knew him intimately to regard him as a trifling skeptic.

Kui Toomas apostlitega ühines, oli ta kahekümne üheksa aastane, abielus ning nelja lapse isa. Ta oli olnud varem puusepp ja müürsepp, kuid hiljuti hakanud kaluriks ning elas Tarihheas, Jordani läänekaldal, jõe Galilea merre suubumise kohas; teda peeti selles väikekülas tähtsaks elanikuks. Haridust oli ta saanud vähe, kuid tal oli terav, arutlev mõistus ja ta oli pärit heast Tibeerias elavast perekonnast. Toomal oli nende kaheteistkümne hulgas tõeliselt analüütiline mõistus, ta oli apostlite seas ehtne teadlane.

139:8.2 (1561.2) When Thomas joined the apostles, he was twenty-nine years old, was married, and had four children. Formerly he had been a carpenter and stone mason, but latterly he had become a fisherman and resided at Tarichea, situated on the west bank of the Jordan where it flows out of the Sea of Galilee, and he was regarded as the leading citizen of this little village. He had little education, but he possessed a keen, reasoning mind and was the son of excellent parents, who lived at Tiberias. Thomas had the one truly analytical mind of the twelve; he was the real scientist of the apostolic group.

Tooma varane lapseiga oli olnud õnnetu, ta vanemad ei olnud päris õnnelikus abielus ja see jättis oma jälje ka Tooma täiskasvanuea kogemustesse. Tal kujunes välja väga ebameeldiv ja riiakas meelelaad. Isegi ta naine oli rõõmus, kui mees apostlite juurde läks: talle pakkus kergendust mõte, et tema pessimistlik mees on enamiku ajast kodust ära. Toomas oli ka kahtlustava loomuga, mistõttu temaga oli väga raske rahumeelselt läbi saada. Peetrust häiris Toomas algul väga ja ta kaebas oma vennale Andreasele, et Toomas on „väiklane, ähvardav ja alati kahtlustav”. Ent mida pare-mini kaaslased Toomast tundma õppisid, seda rohkem hakkas ta neile meeldima. Nad leidsid, et ta on ülimalt aus ja vankumatult ustav. Ta oli täiesti siiras ja kaheldamatult aus, kuigi loomult noriv, ja elu jooksul muutunud tõeliseks pessimistiks. Tema analüütilisele meelele oli kahtlustamine nagu nuhtlus. Kaheteistkümnega liitumise ajal oli ta kiiresti kaotamas usku kaasinimestesse, kuid siis puutus ta kokku Jeesuse ülla loomusega. Tutvumine Meistriga hakkas kohe parandama kogu Tooma meelelaadi ja tema suhtumist kaasinimestesse.

139:8.3 (1561.3) The early home life of Thomas had been unfortunate; his parents were not altogether happy in their married life, and this was reflected in Thomas’s adult experience. He grew up having a very disagreeable and quarrelsome disposition. Even his wife was glad to see him join the apostles; she was relieved by the thought that her pessimistic husband would be away from home most of the time. Thomas also had a streak of suspicion which made it very difficult to get along peaceably with him. Peter was very much upset by Thomas at first, complaining to his brother, Andrew, that Thomas was “mean, ugly, and always suspicious.” But the better his associates knew Thomas, the more they liked him. They found he was superbly honest and unflinchingly loyal. He was perfectly sincere and unquestionably truthful, but he was a natural-born faultfinder and had grown up to become a real pessimist. His analytical mind had become cursed with suspicion. He was rapidly losing faith in his fellow men when he became associated with the twelve and thus came in contact with the noble character of Jesus. This association with the Master began at once to transform Thomas’s whole disposition and to effect great changes in his mental reactions to his fellow men.

Tooma tugev külg oli tema suurepärane analüütiline mõistus ja vankumatu julgus — kui ta kord oli juba oma otsuse teinud. Tema suur nõrkus oli aga umbusklik kahtlemine, millest ta ei saanudki päriselt jagu kogu oma lihaliku elu jooksul.

139:8.4 (1561.4) Thomas’s great strength was his superb analytical mind coupled with his unflinching courage — when he had once made up his mind. His great weakness was his suspicious doubting, which he never fully overcame throughout his whole lifetime in the flesh.

Kaheteistkümne apostli seas anti Toomale ülesanne kavandada ja korraldada nende reise ning ta suunas võimekalt apostlikorpuse tööd ja liikumist. Ta oli hea juht, suurepärane ärimees, kuid teda takistas tema tujukus: ühel päeval oli ta ühtmoodi ja teisel päeval teistmoodi mees. Apostlitega liitudes kippus ta melanhoolsetesse mõtisklustesse langema, kuid kokkupuude Jeesuse ja apostlitega võõrutas teda suures osas sellest haiglasest endassesüüvimisest.

139:8.5 (1561.5) In the organization of the twelve Thomas was assigned to arrange and manage the itinerary, and he was an able director of the work and movements of the apostolic corps. He was a good executive, an excellent businessman, but he was handicapped by his many moods; he was one man one day and another man the next. He was inclined toward melancholic brooding when he joined the apostles, but contact with Jesus and the apostles largely cured him of this morbid introspection.

Jeesusele meeldis Toomas väga ja tal oli temaga pikki isiklikke vestlusi. Tema kuulumine apostlite hulka oli kõigile ausatele kahtlejatele suureks lohutuseks ja ajendas paljusid segaduses meeli kuningriiki astuma, isegi kui nad ei saanud kõigist Jeesuse õpetuste vaimsetest ja filosoofilistest aspektidest päriselt aru. Tooma viibimine kaheteistkümne seas oli pidev tõend selle kohta, et Jeesus armastab ka ausaid kahtlejaid.

139:8.6 (1561.6) Jesus enjoyed Thomas very much and had many long, personal talks with him. His presence among the apostles was a great comfort to all honest doubters and encouraged many troubled minds to come into the kingdom, even if they could not wholly understand everything about the spiritual and philosophic phases of the teachings of Jesus. Thomas’s membership in the twelve was a standing declaration that Jesus loved even honest doubters.

Teised apostlid austasid Jeesust tema täiusliku isiksuse mõne erilise ja silmapaistva joone pärast, kuid Toomas austas oma Meistrit tema ülimalt tasakaalustatud iseloomu tõttu. Toomas imetles ja austas üha enam seda meest, kes oli nii armastavalt halastav, kuid nii vankumatult õiglane ja aus; nii kindel, kuid mitte kunagi kangekaelne; nii rahulik, kuid mitte kunagi ükskõikne; nii abivalmis ja nii osavõtlik, kuid mitte kunagi pealetükkiv ega dikteeriv; nii tugev, kuid samal ajal nii leebe; nii elujaatav, kuid mitte kunagi järsk ega ebaviisakas; nii õrn, kuid mitte kunagi kõhklev; nii puhas ja süütu, kuid samal ajal nii mehelik, aktiivne ja jõuline; nii tõeliselt julge, kuid mitte kunagi läbematu ega uisapäisa tegutsev; nii väga loodust armastav, kuid vaba igasugusest kalduvusest loodusesse aukartusega suhtuda; nii humoorikas ja vallatu, kuid ometi vaba kergemeelsusest ja kerglusest. Toomast võlus just see isiksuse võrratu tasakaal. Ta oskas Jeesusest tõenäoliselt paremini intellektuaalselt aru saada ja tema isiksust kõrgemalt hinnata kui ükski teine kaheteistkümnest.

139:8.7 (1562.1) The other apostles held Jesus in reverence because of some special and outstanding trait of his replete personality, but Thomas revered his Master because of his superbly balanced character. Increasingly Thomas admired and honored one who was so lovingly merciful yet so inflexibly just and fair; so firm but never obstinate; so calm but never indifferent; so helpful and so sympathetic but never meddlesome or dictatorial; so strong but at the same time so gentle; so positive but never rough or rude; so tender but never vacillating; so pure and innocent but at the same time so virile, aggressive, and forceful; so truly courageous but never rash or foolhardy; such a lover of nature but so free from all tendency to revere nature; so humorous and so playful, but so free from levity and frivolity. It was this matchless symmetry of personality that so charmed Thomas. He probably enjoyed the highest intellectual understanding and personality appreciation of Jesus of any of the twelve.

Kaheteistkümne nõupidamistel oli Toomas alati alalhoidlik ja manitses teisi kõigepealt ettevaatusele, kui aga tema konservatiivsus maha hääletati või ümber lükati, oli ta ikka esimene, kes kartmatult asus vastuvõetud tegevuskava ellu viima. Ta oli paljude ettepanekute vastu, pidades neid mõtlematuteks ja ennatlikeks; ta võis ägedalt vaielda, kui aga Andreas ettepaneku hääletusele pani ja ettepanek, mida ta nii tuliselt oli kritiseerinud, vastu võeti, ütles Toomas esimesena: „Lähme!” Ta oli hea kaotaja. Ta ei pidanud viha ega olnud kaua solvunud. Ta oli tihti selle vastu, et Jeesus ohte trotsib, kui aga Meister otsustas siiski riskida, koondas just Toomas apostlid oma vaprate sõnadega „Lähme, sõbrad, ja sureme koos temaga.”

139:8.8 (1562.2) In the councils of the twelve Thomas was always cautious, advocating a policy of safety first, but if his conservatism was voted down or overruled, he was always the first fearlessly to move out in execution of the program decided upon. Again and again would he stand out against some project as being foolhardy and presumptuous; he would debate to the bitter end, but when Andrew would put the proposition to a vote, and after the twelve would elect to do that which he had so strenuously opposed, Thomas was the first to say, “Let’s go!” He was a good loser. He did not hold grudges nor nurse wounded feelings. Time and again did he oppose letting Jesus expose himself to danger, but when the Master would decide to take such risks, always was it Thomas who rallied the apostles with his courageous words, “Come on, comrades, let’s go and die with him.”

Toomas sarnanes nii mõneski mõttes Filippusega: ka tema soovis, et „talle selgitataks”, kuid tema kahtlusavaldused tuginesid hoopis teistsugusele mõttetööle. Toomas ei olnud lihtsalt skeptiline, vaid ka analüütiline. Isikliku füüsilise vapruse poolest oli ta kaheteistkümnest üks julgemaid.

139:8.9 (1562.3) Thomas was in some respects like Philip; he also wanted “to be shown,” but his outward expressions of doubt were based on entirely different intellectual operations. Thomas was analytical, not merely skeptical. As far as personal physical courage was concerned, he was one of the bravest among the twelve.

Ent Toomal oli väga halbu päevi: aeg-ajalt oli ta kurvameelne ja masendunud. Kaksikõe kaotus üheksa-aastasena oli talle nooruses palju kurbust valmistanud ning teda hilisemas eas tujukaks muutnud. Kui Toomas oli rusutud meeleolus, oli vahel Naatanael see, kes tema tuju tõsta aitas, vahel Peetrus, üsna sageli aga üks Alfeuse kaksikutest. Kui ta oli väga rõhutud meeleolus, püüdis ta kahjuks alati vältida otseseid kokkupuuteid Jeesusega. Ent Meister teadis seda ja oli mõistvalt osavõtlik selle apostli suhtes, keda olid tabanud depressioon ja kahtlused.

139:8.10 (1562.4) Thomas had some very bad days; he was blue and downcast at times. The loss of his twin sister when he was nine years old had occasioned him much youthful sorrow and had added to his temperamental problems of later life. When Thomas would become despondent, sometimes it was Nathaniel who helped him to recover, sometimes Peter, and not infrequently one of the Alpheus twins. When he was most depressed, unfortunately he always tried to avoid coming in direct contact with Jesus. But the Master knew all about this and had an understanding sympathy for his apostle when he was thus afflicted with depression and harassed by doubts.

Mõnikord sai Toomas Andreaselt loa päevaks või paariks eemalduda, et üksi olla. Ent ta taipas peagi, et see pole tark tegu. Ta leidis varsti, et rusutud meeleolus viibides on kõige parem teha oma tööd edasi ja jääda kaaslaste juurde. Ent mis ka tema emotsionaalses elus ei juhtunud, tegi ta ikkagi oma apostlitööd edasi. Kui tuli aeg tegelikult teele minna, oli alati Toomas see, kes ütles „Lähme!”

139:8.11 (1562.5) Sometimes Thomas would get permission from Andrew to go off by himself for a day or two. But he soon learned that such a course was not wise; he early found that it was best, when he was downhearted, to stick close to his work and to remain near his associates. But no matter what happened in his emotional life, he kept right on being an apostle. When the time actually came to move forward, it was always Thomas who said, “Let’s go!”

Toomas on hea näide inimolendist, kellel on kahtlusi, kes astub nendega silmitsi ja võidab need. Tal oli suurepärane mõistus; ta polnud väiklaselt noriv kritiseerija, vaid mõtles loogiliselt; ta oli Jeesusele ja kaasapostlitele tugev proovikivi. Kui Jeesus ja tema töö poleks olnud ehtsad, ei oleks see Tooma-taolist meest püsivalt köitnud. Tal oli terane ja kindel faktitunnetus. Esimese pettusemärgi ilmnemisel oleks Toomas nad kõik hüljanud. Võib-olla ei suuda teadlased Jeesusest ja tema tööst maa peal täielikult aru saada, kuid Meistri ja tema inimkaaslastega elas ja töötas koos mees, kellel oli tõeline teadlase mõistus — Toomas Didymos — ja tema uskus Jeesus Naatsaretlasesse.

139:8.12 (1562.6) Thomas is the great example of a human being who has doubts, faces them, and wins. He had a great mind; he was no carping critic. He was a logical thinker; he was the acid test of Jesus and his fellow apostles. If Jesus and his work had not been genuine, it could not have held a man like Thomas from the start to the finish. He had a keen and sure sense of fact. At the first appearance of fraud or deception Thomas would have forsaken them all. Scientists may not fully understand all about Jesus and his work on earth, but there lived and worked with the Master and his human associates a man whose mind was that of a true scientist — Thomas Didymus — and he believed in Jesus of Nazareth.

Kohtumõistmise ja ristilöömise aeg oli Toomale raske katsumus. Ta oli mõnda aega sügavas meeleheites, kuid kogus julguse kokku, jäi apostlite juurde ja oli koos nendega tervitamas Jeesust Galilea järve ääres. Ta alistus teatud ajaks kahtlevale depressioonile, kuid koondas lõpuks oma usu ja julguse. Ta andis apostlitele pärast nelipüha tarka nõu ja kui tagakiusamine uskujad laiali paiskas, läks ta Küprosele, Kreetale, Põhja-Aafrika rannikule ja Sitsiiliasse kuulutama häid taevariigi uudiseid ja ristima usklikke. Toomas jätkas jutlustamist ja ristimist seni, kuni Rooma valitsuse agendid ta vahistasid ja ta Maltal hukati. Kõigest mõni nädal enne oma surma oli ta hakanud Jeesuse elu ja õpetusi üles kirjutama.

139:8.13 (1563.1) Thomas had a trying time during the days of the trial and crucifixion. He was for a season in the depths of despair, but he rallied his courage, stuck to the apostles, and was present with them to welcome Jesus on the Sea of Galilee. For a while he succumbed to his doubting depression but eventually rallied his faith and courage. He gave wise counsel to the apostles after Pentecost and, when persecution scattered the believers, went to Cyprus, Crete, the North African coast, and Sicily, preaching the glad tidings of the kingdom and baptizing believers. And Thomas continued preaching and baptizing until he was apprehended by the agents of the Roman government and was put to death in Malta. Just a few weeks before his death he had begun the writing of the life and teachings of Jesus.

9. ja 10. Jaakobus ja Juudas Alfeus

9 and 10. James and Judas Alpheus

Alfeuse pojad Jaakobus ja Juudas, Keresa lähedal elanud kaluritest kaksikvennad olid Jaakobus ja Johannes Sebedeuse valitud üheksas ja kümnes apostel. Nad olid kahekümne kuue aastased ja abielus, Jaakobusel oli kolm last ja Juudal kaks.

139:9.1 (1563.2) James and Judas the sons of Alpheus, the twin fishermen living near Kheresa, were the ninth and tenth apostles and were chosen by James and John Zebedee. They were twenty-six years old and married, James having three children, Judas two.

Nende kahe lihtsa kalamehe kohta pole just palju öelda. Nad armastasid oma Meistrit ja Jeesuski armastas neid, kuid nad ei katkestanud kunagi tema juttu oma küsimustega. Nad said teiste apostlite filosoofilistest aruteludest ja teoloogilistest väitlustest väga vähe aru, kuid rõõmustasid selle üle, et võisid nii vägevate meeste seas viibida. Need kaks meest olid välimuselt, mõistuselt ja vaimse taju poolest peaaegu identsed. Mida võis öelda ühe kohta, see pidas paika ka teise puhul.

139:9.2 (1563.3) There is not much to be said about these two commonplace fisherfolk. They loved their Master and Jesus loved them, but they never interrupted his discourses with questions. They understood very little about the philosophical discussions or the theological debates of their fellow apostles, but they rejoiced to find themselves numbered among such a group of mighty men. These two men were almost identical in personal appearance, mental characteristics, and extent of spiritual perception. What may be said of one should be recorded of the other.

Andreas tegi neile ülesandeks rahvahulkade suunamise. Nad olid jutluste ajal peamised kohanäitajad ja tegelikult ka kaheteistkümne teenrid ja jooksupoisid. Nad aitasid Filippust varustamisel, viisid Naatanaeli ülesandel peredele raha ja olid alati valmis mõnda apostlit aitama.

139:9.3 (1563.4) Andrew assigned them to the work of policing the multitudes. They were the chief ushers of the preaching hours and, in fact, the general servants and errand boys of the twelve. They helped Philip with the supplies, they carried money to the families for Nathaniel, and always were they ready to lend a helping hand to any one of the apostles.

Lihtrahva hulki julgustas väga see, kui nad nägid, et kahel nende endi sugusel mehel on apostlite seas oma koht. Ja nende keskpäraste kaksikute võtmine apostlite sekka tõi kuningriiki terve hulga arglikke usklikke. Ning lihtrahvas laskis omasugustel ametlikel kohanäitajatel end ka paremini suunata ja juhtida.

139:9.4 (1563.5) The multitudes of the common people were greatly encouraged to find two like themselves honored with places among the apostles. By their very acceptance as apostles these mediocre twins were the means of bringing a host of fainthearted believers into the kingdom. And, too, the common people took more kindly to the idea of being directed and managed by official ushers who were very much like themselves.

Jaakobusel ja Juudal, keda nimetati ka Taddeuseks ja Lebeuseks, polnud ei tugevaid ega nõrku külgi. Need jüngrite antud hüüdnimed viitasid heatahtlikult nende keskpärasusele. Nad olid „kõigist apostlitest vähimad”, nad teadsid seda ja suhtusid sellesse rõõmsameelselt.

139:9.5 (1563.6) James and Judas, who were also called Thaddeus and Lebbeus, had neither strong points nor weak points. The nicknames given them by the disciples were good-natured designations of mediocrity. They were “the least of all the apostles”; they knew it and felt cheerful about it.

Jaakobus Alfeus armastas Jeesust eriti Meistri lihtsuse pärast. Kaksikud ei suutnud Jeesuse meelest aru saada, kuid tunnetasid enda ja oma Meistri vahelist osavõtlikkusesidet. Nende meeled ei olnud kõrgemat liiki, neid võiks isegi hoolimata kogu lugupidamisest rumalateks nimetada, kuid neil olid tõelised vaimsed kogemused. Nad uskusid Jeesusesse, nad olid Jumala pojad ja kuulusid taevariigi vennaskonda.

139:9.6 (1563.7) James Alpheus especially loved Jesus because of the Master’s simplicity. These twins could not comprehend the mind of Jesus, but they did grasp the sympathetic bond between themselves and the heart of their Master. Their minds were not of a high order; they might even reverently be called stupid, but they had a real experience in their spiritual natures. They believed in Jesus; they were sons of God and fellows of the kingdom.

Juudas Alfeust veetles Jeesuse vaikne tagasihoidlikkus. See nii väärika isiku tagasihoidlikkus meeldis Juudale väga. Asjaolu, et Jeesus palus oma ebatavalistest tegudest alati vaikida, avaldas sellele lihtsale looduslapsele sügavat muljet.

139:9.7 (1564.1) Judas Alpheus was drawn toward Jesus because of the Master’s unostentatious humility. Such humility linked with such personal dignity made a great appeal to Judas. The fact that Jesus would always enjoin silence regarding his unusual acts made a great impression on this simple child of nature.

Kaksikud olid heatahtlikud, lihtsameelsed abilised ja kõik armastasid neid. Jeesus seadis need vaid ühes asjas andekad noormehed kuningriigis oma isiklikus kaaskonnas aukohtadele, sest kosmosemaailmades on ütlemata palju miljoneid samasuguseid lihtsaid ja arglikke hingi, keda ta samamoodi soovib näha aktiivsete uskujatena, kellega tema ja tema väljavalatud Tõe Vaim saaksid sõbralikke suhteid luua. Jeesus ei põlasta tähtsusetust, vaid ainult pahet ja pattu. Jaakobus ja Juudas olid tähtsusetud, ent nad olid ka ustavad. Nad olid lihtsad ja harimatud, kuid suuremeelsed, hea südamega ja helded.

139:9.8 (1564.2) The twins were good-natured, simple-minded helpers, and everybody loved them. Jesus welcomed these young men of one talent to positions of honor on his personal staff in the kingdom because there are untold millions of other such simple and fear-ridden souls on the worlds of space whom he likewise wishes to welcome into active and believing fellowship with himself and his outpoured Spirit of Truth. Jesus does not look down upon littleness, only upon evil and sin. James and Judas were little, but they were also faithful. They were simple and ignorant, but they were also big-hearted, kind, and generous.

Ning kui tänulikult uhked olid need tagasihoidlikud mehed päeval, mil Meister keeldus evangelistiks võtmast üht rikast meest, kes polnud nõus oma kaupa ära müüma ja vaeseid aitama. Kui inimesed seda kuulsid ja nägid tema nõunike seas kaksikuid, täitis neid kindel teadmine, et Jeesus ei tee isikutel vahet. Ent ainult jumalikku institutsiooni — taevariiki — oligi võimalik ehitada nii keskpärasele inimlikule alusele!

139:9.9 (1564.3) And how gratefully proud were these humble men on that day when the Master refused to accept a certain rich man as an evangelist unless he would sell his goods and help the poor. When the people heard this and beheld the twins among his counselors, they knew of a certainty that Jesus was no respecter of persons. But only a divine institution — the kingdom of heaven — could ever have been built upon such a mediocre human foundation!

Kaksikud julgesid kogu Jeesusega koos oldud aja jooksul vaid ühel-kahel korral avalikult küsimusi esitada. Juudal tekkis kord soov Jeesusele küsimus esitada, kui Meister oli rääkinud enese avalikust ilmutamisest maailmale. Ta oli veidi pettunud, sest siis poleks enam olnud kaheteistkümnevahelisi saladusi, ning söandas küsida: „Aga Meister, kui sa end selliselt maailmale ilmutad, kuidas saad sa siis meile oma erilist headust üles näidata?”

139:9.10 (1564.4) Only once or twice in all their association with Jesus did the twins venture to ask questions in public. Judas was once intrigued into asking Jesus a question when the Master had talked about revealing himself openly to the world. He felt a little disappointed that there were to be no more secrets among the twelve, and he made bold to ask: “But, Master, when you do thus declare yourself to the world, how will you favor us with special manifestations of your goodness?”

Kaksikud teenisid ustavalt kuni lõpuni, kuni süngete kohtumõistmise, ristilöömise ja meeleheite päevadeni. Nad ei kaotanud kunagi oma südames usku Jeesusesse ja olid esimesed (kui mitte arvestada Johannest), kes tema ülestõusmist uskuma jäid. Ent taevariigi rajamisest ei suutnud nad aru saada. Varsti pärast Meistri ristilöömist pöördusid nad oma perede ja võrkude juurde tagasi, nende töö oli tehtud. Nad polnud võimelised jätkama keerulisemat võitlust. Ent nad elasid ja surid teadmisega, et neile oli saanud osaks au ja õnnistus suhelda neli aastat lähedalt ja isiklikult Jumala Pojaga, universumi suveräänist loojaga.

139:9.11 (1564.5) The twins served faithfully until the end, until the dark days of trial, crucifixion, and despair. They never lost their heart faith in Jesus, and (save John) they were the first to believe in his resurrection. But they could not comprehend the establishment of the kingdom. Soon after their Master was crucified, they returned to their families and nets; their work was done. They had not the ability to go on in the more complex battles of the kingdom. But they lived and died conscious of having been honored and blessed with four years of close and personal association with a Son of God, the sovereign maker of a universe.

11. Seloot Siimon

11. Simon the Zealot

Üheteistkümnenda apostli seloot Siimoni valis Siimon Peetrus. Ta oli heade esivanematega ja võimekas mees ning elas oma perega Kapernaumas. Kui ta apostlitega ühines, oli ta kahekümne kaheksa aastane. Ta oli tulihingeline agitaator ja samuti mees, kes rääkis palju mõtlematut. Enne kui ta pühendas kogu oma tähelepanu selootide patriootlikule organisatsioonile, oli ta olnud Kapernaumas kaupmees.

139:11.1 (1564.6) Simon Zelotes, the eleventh apostle, was chosen by Simon Peter. He was an able man of good ancestry and lived with his family at Capernaum. He was twenty-eight years old when he became attached to the apostles. He was a fiery agitator and was also a man who spoke much without thinking. He had been a merchant in Capernaum before he turned his entire attention to the patriotic organization of the Zealots.

Seloot Siimonile tehti ülesandeks korraldada apostliterühma meelelahutust ja puhkust ning ta oskas kaheteistkümne vaba aega väga tõhusalt sisustada.

139:11.2 (1564.7) Simon Zelotes was given charge of the diversions and relaxation of the apostolic group, and he was a very efficient organizer of the play life and recreational activities of the twelve.

Siimoni tugev külg oli tema innukas ustavus. Kui apostlid leidsid mõne mehe või naise, kes oli kahevahel, kas astuda kuningriiki või mitte, saatsid nad Siimoni järele. Sel entusiastlikul Jumalasse uskumise kaudu pääsemise propageerijal kulus tavaliselt ainult veerand tundi, et kõik kahtlused ja kahevahelolekud hajutada ning näha uut hinge sündimas „usuvabadusse ja pääsemisrõõmu”.

139:11.3 (1564.8) Simon’s strength was his inspirational loyalty. When the apostles found a man or woman who floundered in indecision about entering the kingdom, they would send for Simon. It usually required only about fifteen minutes for this enthusiastic advocate of salvation through faith in God to settle all doubts and remove all indecision, to see a new soul born into the “liberty of faith and the joy of salvation.”

Siimoni suur nõrkus oli tema materiaalne meel. Tema muundumine juudi natsionalistist vaimselt meelestatud internatsionalistiks ei toimunud just kiiresti. Neli aastat oli selliseks intellektuaalseks ja emotsionaalseks muutuseks liiga lühike aeg, kuid Jeesus oli temaga alati kannatlik.

139:11.4 (1565.1) Simon’s great weakness was his material-mindedness. He could not quickly change himself from a Jewish nationalist to a spiritually minded internationalist. Four years was too short a time in which to make such an intellectual and emotional transformation, but Jesus was always patient with him.

Siimon imetles Jeesuses kõige enam tolle rahulikkust, enesekindlust, tasakaalukust ja seletamatut meelerahu.

139:11.5 (1565.2) The one thing about Jesus which Simon so much admired was the Master’s calmness, his assurance, poise, and inexplicable composure.

Ehkki Siimon oli meeletu revolutsionäär, kartmatu ja sütitav agitaator, muutus ta tulihingeline loomus aegamööda tasasemaks, kuni ta hakkas võimsalt ja tulemuslikult jutlustama „rahu maa peal ja head tahet inimeste seas”. Siimon oli hea väitleja, talle meeldis vaielda. Kui oli vaja esitada vastuväiteid seadusi austavatele haritud juutidele või intellektuaalseid sõnamänge harrastavatele kreeklastele, anti see ülesanne alati Siimonile.

139:11.6 (1565.3) Although Simon was a rabid revolutionist, a fearless firebrand of agitation, he gradually subdued his fiery nature until he became a powerful and effective preacher of “Peace on earth and good will among men.” Simon was a great debater; he did like to argue. And when it came to dealing with the legalistic minds of the educated Jews or the intellectual quibblings of the Greeks, the task was always assigned to Simon.

Ta oli loomult mässaja ja koolituselt pühakspeetavate tõekspidamiste ründaja, kuid Jeesus võitis ta taevariigi kõrgemate kontseptsioonide poole. Ta oli alati hoidunud opositsioonileeri, kuid nüüd ühines progressi pooldajatega, vaimu ja tõe piiritu ning igavese edenemisega. Siimon oli väga ustav ja tuliselt andunud mees ning armastas Jeesust sügavalt.

139:11.7 (1565.4) He was a rebel by nature and an iconoclast by training, but Jesus won him for the higher concepts of the kingdom of heaven. He had always identified himself with the party of protest, but he now joined the party of progress, unlimited and eternal progression of spirit and truth. Simon was a man of intense loyalties and warm personal devotions, and he did profoundly love Jesus.

Jeesus ei kartnud end lahutamatult siduda ärimeeste, tööliste, optimistide, pessimistide, filosoofide, skeptikute, tölnerite, poliitikute ega patriootidega.

139:11.8 (1565.5) Jesus was not afraid to identify himself with business men, laboring men, optimists, pessimists, philosophers, skeptics, publicans, politicians, and patriots.

Meistril oli Siimoniga palju jutuajamisi, kuid tal ei õnnestunudki seda tulihingelist juudi natsionalisti päriselt internatsionalistiks muuta. Jeesus rääkis Siimonile sageli, et soov parandada sotsiaalset, majanduslikku ja poliitilist korda on täiesti kohane, kuid lisas alati: „See ei ole taevariigi ülesanne. Me peame pühenduma Isa tahte täitmisele. Meie töö on olla kõrge vaimse valitsuse saadikud ning me ei tohiks vahetult tegelda millegi muuga kui jumaliku Isa tahte ja olemuse esindamisega, kes juhib seda valitsust, kellelt me oleme oma volitused saanud.” Siimonile oli kõik see raskesti mõistetav, kuid ta hakkas järk-järgult Meistri õpetuse tähendustest siiski aru saama.

139:11.9 (1565.6) The Master had many talks with Simon, but he never fully succeeded in making an internationalist out of this ardent Jewish nationalist. Jesus often told Simon that it was proper to want to see the social, economic, and political orders improved, but he would always add: “That is not the business of the kingdom of heaven. We must be dedicated to the doing of the Father’s will. Our business is to be ambassadors of a spiritual government on high, and we must not immediately concern ourselves with aught but the representation of the will and character of the divine Father who stands at the head of the government whose credentials we bear.” It was all difficult for Simon to comprehend, but gradually he began to grasp something of the meaning of the Master’s teaching.

Pärast laialiminekut Jeruusalemma tagakiusamiste tõttu jäi Siimon ajutiselt tegevusest eemale. Ta oli lausa löödud. Natsionalistist patrioodina oli ta lugupidamisest Jeesuse õpetuste vastu neile allunud, aga nüüd oli kõik kadunud. Ta oli meeleheitel, kuid mõne aasta pärast kogus lootuse kokku ja läks kuulutama taevariigi evangeeliumi.

139:11.10 (1565.7) After the dispersion because of the Jerusalem persecutions, Simon went into temporary retirement. He was literally crushed. As a nationalist patriot he had surrendered in deference to Jesus’ teachings; now all was lost. He was in despair, but in a few years he rallied his hopes and went forth to proclaim the gospel of the kingdom.

Ta suundus Aleksandriasse ja pärast tööd Niiluse ülemjooksul suundus üha sügavamale Aafrika südamesse, jutlustades kõikjal Jeesuse evangeeliumi ja ristides usklikke. Ta tegi seda tööd seni, kuni jäi vanaks ja väetiks. Ning ta suri ja maeti Aafrika südames.

139:11.11 (1565.8) He went to Alexandria and, after working up the Nile, penetrated into the heart of Africa, everywhere preaching the gospel of Jesus and baptizing believers. Thus he labored until he was an old man and feeble. And he died and was buried in the heart of Africa.

12. Juudas Iskariot

12. Judas Iscariot

Kaheteistkümnenda apostli Juudas Iskarioti valis Naatanael. Juudas oli sündinud Juudamaa lõunaosa väikelinnas Keriotis. Kui ta noorukiks kasvas, kolisid ta vanemad Jeerikosse, kus ta elas ja töötas oma isa mitmesugustes ettevõtetes kuni ajani, mil ta hakkas huvituma jutlustamisest ja Ristija Johannese tööst. Juuda vanemad olid saduserid ja kui nende poeg astus Johannese jüngrite hulka, ütlesid nad temast lahti.

139:12.1 (1565.9) Judas Iscariot, the twelfth apostle, was chosen by Nathaniel. He was born in Kerioth, a small town in southern Judea. When he was a lad, his parents moved to Jericho, where he lived and had been employed in his father’s various business enterprises until he became interested in the preaching and work of John the Baptist. Judas’s parents were Sadducees, and when their son joined John’s disciples, they disowned him.

Kui Naatanael Juudast Tarihheas kohtas, lootis too parajasti tööd leida kalakuivatamisettevõttes Galilea järve lõunasopis. Ta oli apostlitega ühinedes kolmekümneaastane ja vallaline. Neist kaheteistkümnest oli ta tõenäoliselt kõige haritum ja ainus juudalane Meistri apostlite seas. Juuda isiksusel ei olnud ühtki silmapaistvalt tugevat külge, ehkki tal oli väliselt mitu kultuurset joont ja koolitusega omandatud harjumust. Ta oli hea mõtleja, kuid mitte just alati tõeliselt aus mõtleja. Juudas ei saanud iseendast lõpuni aru, ta polnud enda ees tõeliselt aus.

139:12.2 (1566.1) When Nathaniel met Judas at Tarichea, he was seeking employment with a fish-drying enterprise at the lower end of the Sea of Galilee. He was thirty years of age and unmarried when he joined the apostles. He was probably the best-educated man among the twelve and the only Judean in the Master’s apostolic family. Judas had no outstanding trait of personal strength, though he had many outwardly appearing traits of culture and habits of training. He was a good thinker but not always a truly honest thinker. Judas did not really understand himself; he was not really sincere in dealing with himself.

Andreas määras Juuda kaheteistkümne varahoidjaks, mis oli talle eriti sobiv amet, ning ajani, mil ta Meistri reetis, täitis ta oma ametikohustusi ausalt, ustavalt ja väga tõhusalt.

139:12.3 (1566.2) Andrew appointed Judas treasurer of the twelve, a position which he was eminently fitted to hold, and up to the time of the betrayal of his Master he discharged the responsibilities of his office honestly, faithfully, and most efficiently.

Juudas imetles Jeesuses kõige rohkem Meistri üldiselt veetlevat ja oivaliselt võluvat isiksust. Ta ei suutnud kunagi saada üle juudalasele omastest eelarvamustest oma Galilea kaaslaste vastu; ta kritiseeris mõtteis isegi Jeesust nii mitmelgi põhjusel. Seda, keda üksteist apostlit austasid kui täiuslikku inimest, „meeldivaimat ja silmapaistvaimat kümne tuhande hulgas”, söandas see enesega rahulolev juudalane sageli oma südames kritiseerida. Ta oli tegelikult arvamusel, et Jeesus on arglik ja veidi kardab oma võimu ning volitusi maksma panna.

139:12.4 (1566.3) There was no special trait about Jesus which Judas admired above the generally attractive and exquisitely charming personality of the Master. Judas was never able to rise above his Judean prejudices against his Galilean associates; he would even criticize in his mind many things about Jesus. Him whom eleven of the apostles looked upon as the perfect man, as the “one altogether lovely and the chiefest among ten thousand,” this self-satisfied Judean often dared to criticize in his own heart. He really entertained the notion that Jesus was timid and somewhat afraid to assert his own power and authority.

Juudas oli hea majandusmees. Jeesuse-taolise idealisti rahaasjade korraldamine nõudis taktitunnet, võimekust ja kannatlikkust, samuti hoolikat pühendumist, rääkimata maadlemisest mõne apostli ülepeakaela majandamisviisidega. Juudas oli tõesti suurepärane administraator, ettenägelik ja võimekas finantsist. Ning ta nõudis ranget korda. Ükski kaheteistkümnest ei kritiseerinud kunagi Juudast. Nende jaoks oli Juudas Iskariot võrratu varahoidja, õpetatud mees, ustav (kuigi mõnikord kriitiline) ja igas mõttes edukas apostel. Apostlid armastasid Juudast, ta oli tõepoolest üks neist. Ilmselt ta uskus Jeesusesse, kuid me kahtleme, kas ta Meistrit tegelikult kogu südamest armastas. Juudas on ilmekaks näiteks ütlusele „Inimese meelest on mõnigi tee õige, aga lõpuks on see surmatee.” On täiesti võimalik langeda rahuliku pettuse ohvriks, kohandudes mugavalt patu ja surma teedega. Võite kindel olla, et Juudas oli rahaasjades oma Meistrile ja kaasapostlitele alati ustav. Raha poleks kunagi saanud olla Meistri reetmise motiiv.

139:12.5 (1566.4) Judas was a good business man. It required tact, ability, and patience, as well as painstaking devotion, to manage the financial affairs of such an idealist as Jesus, to say nothing of wrestling with the helter-skelter business methods of some of his apostles. Judas really was a great executive, a farseeing and able financier. And he was a stickler for organization. None of the twelve ever criticized Judas. As far as they could see, Judas Iscariot was a matchless treasurer, a learned man, a loyal (though sometimes critical) apostle, and in every sense of the word a great success. The apostles loved Judas; he was really one of them. He must have believed in Jesus, but we doubt whether he really loved the Master with a whole heart. The case of Judas illustrates the truthfulness of that saying: “There is a way that seems right to a man, but the end thereof is death.” It is altogether possible to fall victim to the peaceful deception of pleasant adjustment to the paths of sin and death. Be assured that Judas was always financially loyal to his Master and his fellow apostles. Money could never have been the motive for his betrayal of the Master.

Juudas oli mitte just mõistlike vanemate ainus poeg. Lapsena hellitati ja hoiti teda liigselt, sellega rikuti ta ära. Kasvades hakkas ta end ülearu tähtsaks pidama. Kaotusi elas ta raskelt üle. Tema ettekujutus õiglusest oli lõtv ja moonutatud; ta andis oma vihale ja kahtlustele kergesti järele. Ta oskas alati oma sõprade sõnu ja tegusid vääriti tõlgendada. Juudas püüdis kogu elu kätte maksta neile, kes tema ettekujutuse kohaselt olid teda vääralt kohelnud. Tema väärtushinnangud ja lojaalsustunne olid puudulikud.

139:12.6 (1566.5) Judas was an only son of unwise parents. When very young, he was pampered and petted; he was a spoiled child. As he grew up, he had exaggerated ideas about his self-importance. He was a poor loser. He had loose and distorted ideas about fairness; he was given to the indulgence of hate and suspicion. He was an expert at misinterpretation of the words and acts of his friends. All through his life Judas had cultivated the habit of getting even with those whom he fancied had mistreated him. His sense of values and loyalties was defective.

Jeesusele oli Juudas usu proovikivi. Meister nägi algusest peale selgesti selle apostli nõrkust ja teadis väga hästi, kui ohtlik on teda vennaskonda vastu võtta. Kuid Inimese Poja loomus nõudis, et kõigile loodud-olendeile tuleb anda täielikud ja võrdsed pääsemis-ja ellujäämisvõimalused. Jeesus tahtis, et mitte ainult selle maailma surelikud, vaid ka arvukate teiste maailmade pealtvaatajad teaksid, et kui loodud-olendi siiras ja kogu südamest andumises kaheldaksegi, võtavad inimeste üle kohtumõistjad kahtlase kandidaadi alati vastu. Igavese elu uks on kõigile avali, „tulgu kõik, kes soovivad”; peale usu tulijale muid piiranguid ega tingimusi ei seata.

139:12.7 (1566.6) To Jesus, Judas was a faith adventure. From the beginning the Master fully understood the weakness of this apostle and well knew the dangers of admitting him to fellowship. But it is the nature of the Sons of God to give every created being a full and equal chance for salvation and survival. Jesus wanted not only the mortals of this world but the onlookers of innumerable other worlds to know that, when doubts exist as to the sincerity and wholeheartedness of a creature’s devotion to the kingdom, it is the invariable practice of the Judges of men fully to receive the doubtful candidate. The door of eternal life is wide open to all; “whosoever will may come”; there are no restrictions or qualifications save the faith of the one who comes.

Just seepärast lubas Jeesus Juudal lõpuni jätkata, tehes alati kõik mis võimalik selle nõrga ja segadusse sattunud apostli muutmiseks ja päästmiseks. Kui aga valgust ei võeta ausalt vastu ja selle järgi ei elata, kipub see hinges pimeduseks muutuma. Jeesuse õpetused taevariigist kasvatasid Juudast intellektuaalselt, kuid ta ei arenenud edasi oma vaimselt olemuselt, nii nagu seda tegid teised apostlid. Tal ei õnnestunud isiklikus vaimses kogemuses rahuldavalt edeneda.

139:12.8 (1567.1) This is just the reason why Jesus permitted Judas to go on to the very end, always doing everything possible to transform and save this weak and confused apostle. But when light is not honestly received and lived up to, it tends to become darkness within the soul. Judas grew intellectually regarding Jesus’ teachings about the kingdom, but he did not make progress in the acquirement of spiritual character as did the other apostles. He failed to make satisfactory personal progress in spiritual experience.

Juudas hakkas üha enam oma isiklike pettumuste üle mõtteid mõlgutama ja lõpuks ka vimma hauduma. Tema tundeid oli mitu korda riivatud ja ta hakkas oma parimaid sõpru, isegi Meistrit kohatult kahtlustama. Peagi tekkis tal kinnismõte neile kätte tasuda, ükskõik mil viisil, isegi oma kaaslaste ja Meistri reetmise teel.

139:12.9 (1567.2) Judas became increasingly a brooder over personal disappointment, and finally he became a victim of resentment. His feelings had been many times hurt, and he grew abnormally suspicious of his best friends, even of the Master. Presently he became obsessed with the idea of getting even, anything to avenge himself, yes, even betrayal of his associates and his Master.

Need nurjatud ja ohtlikud mõtted omandasid siiski kindla kuju alles sel päeval, mil üks tänulik naine lõhkus Jeesuse jalge ees kalli viirukikarbi. See tundus Juudale suure raiskamisena ja kui Jeesus tema avalikud etteheited sealsamas kõigi kuuldes pikema jututa vaigistas, läks see tema jaoks juba üle igasuguse piiri. See sündmus vallandas kogu temasse elu jooksul kogunenud viha, solvangud, kurjad plaanid, eelarvamused, kadeduse ja kättemaksuiha ning ta otsustas kätte maksta, kuigi ei teadnud, kellele; ta koondas kogu oma loomuse kurjuse, oma õnnetu elu räpase draama ühele süütule osalisele vaid sellepärast, et Jeesus juhtus olema peategelane episoodis, mis tähistas tema üleminekut edasiviivast valguseriigist endavalitud pimeduseriiki.

139:12.10 (1567.3) But these wicked and dangerous ideas did not take definite shape until the day when a grateful woman broke an expensive box of incense at Jesus’ feet. This seemed wasteful to Judas, and when his public protest was so sweepingly disallowed by Jesus right there in the hearing of all, it was too much. That event determined the mobilization of all the accumulated hate, hurt, malice, prejudice, jealousy, and revenge of a lifetime, and he made up his mind to get even with he knew not whom; but he crystallized all the evil of his nature upon the one innocent person in all the sordid drama of his unfortunate life just because Jesus happened to be the chief actor in the episode which marked his passing from the progressive kingdom of light into that self-chosen domain of darkness.

Meister oli Juudast korduvalt nii omavahel olles kui ka avalikult hoiatanud, et ta on langemas, kuid jumalikud hoiatused on kibestunud inimloomuse puhul sageli kasutud. Jeesus tegi kõik mis võimalik ja kooskõlas inimese moraalse vabadusega, et hoida Juudast väärale teele sattumast. Lõpuks tuligi suur proovilepanek. Vimma täis poeg ei suutnud seda läbida, ta andis järele oma liialdatud eneseuhkuse ja kättemaksuhimulise mõistuse mornidele ja räpastele käskudele ning sööstis, pea ees, segadusse, meeleheitesse ja pahesse.

139:12.11 (1567.4) The Master many times, both privately and publicly, had warned Judas that he was slipping, but divine warnings are usually useless in dealing with embittered human nature. Jesus did everything possible, consistent with man’s moral freedom, to prevent Judas’s choosing to go the wrong way. The great test finally came. The son of resentment failed; he yielded to the sour and sordid dictates of a proud and vengeful mind of exaggerated self-importance and swiftly plunged on down into confusion, despair, and depravity.

Ning siis käivitas Juudas alatu ja häbitu intriigi oma Issanda ja Meistri reetmiseks ning viis selle nurjatu kava kiiresti ka täide. Vihast sünnitatud reetmiskavade elluviimise käigus tundis ta vahel korraks ka kahetsust ja häbi ning neil selgetel hetkedel tekkis tal enesekaitseks pelgurlik mõte, et Jeesus võib kasutada oma võimu ja end veel viimsel hetkel päästa.

139:12.12 (1567.5) Judas then entered into the base and shameful intrigue to betray his Lord and Master and quickly carried the nefarious scheme into effect. During the outworking of his anger-conceived plans of traitorous betrayal, he experienced moments of regret and shame, and in these lucid intervals he faintheartedly conceived, as a defense in his own mind, the idea that Jesus might possibly exert his power and deliver himself at the last moment.

Kui see räpane ja patune tegu tehtud sai, tormas kergemeelselt oma sõbra ammuse kättemaksuiha rahuldamiseks kolmekümne hõbeseekli eest maha müünud reeturist surelik eemale ja pani toime oma sureliku eksistentsi tegelikkuse eest põgenemiseks viimse teo — enesetapu.

139:12.13 (1567.6) When the sordid and sinful business was all over, this renegade mortal, who thought lightly of selling his friend for thirty pieces of silver to satisfy his long-nursed craving for revenge, rushed out and committed the final act in the drama of fleeing from the realities of mortal existence — suicide.

Üksteist apostlit olid kohkunud ja hämmastunud. Jeesus tundis reeturi suhtes vaid kaastunnet. Maailmadel on olnud raske Juudale andeks anda ja tema nimel on halb kõla kogu kaugeleulatuvas universumis.

139:12.14 (1567.7) The eleven apostles were horrified, stunned. Jesus regarded the betrayer only with pity. The worlds have found it difficult to forgive Judas, and his name has become eschewed throughout a far-flung universe.





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