URANTIA RAAMAT - 123. Kiri. Jeesuse varane lapseiga

(UF-EST-001-2010-1)

URANTIA RAAMAT   

IV OSA: Jeesuse elu ja Õpetused



123. Kiri. Jeesuse varane lapseiga

Paper 123 : The Early Childhood of Jesus

ET PETLEMMAS viibimine tekitas kindlusetus- ja ärevustunnet, võõrutas Maarja lapse alles siis, kui nad olid turvaliselt Aleksandriasse jõudnud ja perekond sai taas tavalist igapäevaelu elada. Nad elasid sugulaste juures ja Joosep suutis oma peret ise ülal pidada, sest leidis peagi pärast saabumist tööd. Ta töötas mitu kuud puusepana, kuni edutati suure ühiskondliku hoone ehitusel töötava töölisterühma meistriks. See uus kogemus andis talle mõtte hakata Naatsaretti naastes ehitusettevõtjaks.

123:0.1 (1355.1) OWING to the uncertainties and anxieties of their sojourn in Bethlehem, Mary did not wean the babe until they had arrived safely in Alexandria, where the family was able to settle down to a normal life. They lived with kinsfolk, and Joseph was well able to support his family as he secured work shortly after their arrival. He was employed as a carpenter for several months and then elevated to the position of foreman of a large group of workmen employed on one of the public buildings then in process of construction. This new experience gave him the idea of becoming a contractor and builder after their return to Nazareth.

Neil Jeesuse abitu lapseea varajastel aastatel valvas Maarja pidevalt ja hoolikalt, et lapsega ei juhtuks midagi, mis võiks ta heaolu ohustada või tema tulevase missiooni täitmist takistada: ükski ema pole kunagi olnud rohkem oma lapsele pühendunud. Kodus, kuhu Jeesus kasvama sattus, oli veel kaks temaealist ja lähematel naabritel veel kuus peaaegu temavanust last, kes olid talle sobivad mängukaaslased. Algul soovis Maarja Jeesust rohkem enda läheduses hoida. Ta kartis, et poisiga võib midagi juhtuda, kui tal lastakse aias teiste lastega mängida, aga Joosep suutis sugulaste abiga ema veenda, et nii jääks Jeesus ilma kasulikust võimalusest õppida omavanuste lastega kohanemist. Ja mõistes, et ülearune hoolitsus ja tavatu kaitse võib Jeesuse iseteadlikuks ja enesekeskseks muuta, oli Maarja lõpuks nõus laskma tõotatud lapsel kasvada samamoodi, nagu kasvasid kõik teised lapsed; ja kuigi ta sellest otsusest kinni pidas, oli ta alati valvel, kui lapsed majas või aias mängisid. Ainult armastav ema teab, missugust koormat Maarja südames kandis, muretsedes kõigi nende varase lapseea aastate jooksul oma poja turvalisuse eest.

123:0.2 (1355.2) All through these early years of Jesus’ helpless infancy, Mary maintained one long and constant vigil lest anything befall her child which might jeopardize his welfare or in any way interfere with his future mission on earth; no mother was ever more devoted to her child. In the home where Jesus chanced to be there were two other children about his age, and among the near neighbors there were six others whose ages were sufficiently near his own to make them acceptable play-fellows. At first Mary was disposed to keep Jesus close by her side. She feared something might happen to him if he were allowed to play in the garden with the other children, but Joseph, with the assistance of his kinsfolk, was able to convince her that such a course would deprive Jesus of the helpful experience of learning how to adjust himself to children of his own age. And Mary, realizing that such a program of undue sheltering and unusual protection might tend to make him self-conscious and somewhat self-centered, finally gave assent to the plan of permitting the child of promise to grow up just like any other child; and though she was obedient to this decision, she made it her business always to be on watch while the little folks were at play about the house or in the garden. Only an affectionate mother can know the burden that Mary carried in her heart for the safety of her son during these years of his infancy and early childhood.

Kahel Aleksandrias viibitud aastal oli Jeesuse tervis hea ja ta kasvas normaalselt. Sellest, et Jeesus on „tõotatud laps”, kõneldi ainult vähestele tuttavatele ja sugulastele. Üks Joosepi sugulastest avaldas selle saladuse mõnedele oma tuttavatele Memphises, kaugetel aegadel elanud Ehnatoni järeltulijatele, ja need kogunesid enne Joosepi pere tagasipöördumist Palestiinasse koos Aleksandria usklike väikese rühmaga Joosepi sugulasest heategija paleetaolisse majja, et naatsaretlaste perele õnne kaasa soovida ja lapsele austust avaldada. Kokkutulnud kinkisid Jeesusele täieliku kogu heebrea pühakirjade kreekakeelseid tõlkeid. Ent see anti Joosepi kätte alles siis, kui nad Maarjaga olid lõplikult tagasi lükanud oma Memphise ja Aleksandria tuttavate kutse Egiptusesse jääda. Need uskujad olid seisukohal, et tõotatud laps saaks Aleksandrias elades maailmale tunduvalt suuremat mõju avaldada kui üheski Palestiina paigas. Nende veenmiste tõttu viibis lahkumine Palestiinasse mõnda aega pärast seda, kui nad olid kuulnud Herodese surmast.

123:0.3 (1355.3) Throughout the two years of their sojourn at Alexandria, Jesus enjoyed good health and continued to grow normally. Aside from a few friends and relatives no one was told about Jesus’ being a “child of promise.” One of Joseph’s relatives revealed this to a few friends in Memphis, descendants of the distant Ikhnaton, and they, with a small group of Alexandrian believers, assembled at the palatial home of Joseph’s relative-benefactor a short time before the return to Palestine to wish the Nazareth family well and to pay their respects to the child. On this occasion the assembled friends presented Jesus with a complete copy of the Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures. But this copy of the Jewish sacred writings was not placed in Joseph’s hands until both he and Mary had finally declined the invitation of their Memphis and Alexandrian friends to remain in Egypt. These believers insisted that the child of destiny would be able to exert a far greater world influence as a resident of Alexandria than of any designated place in Palestine. These persuasions delayed their departure for Palestine for some time after they received the news of Herod’s death.

Lõpuks lahkusid Joosep ja Maarja Aleksandriast oma tuttava Ezraeoni laeval, mis suundus Joppasse ja jõudis sellesse sadamasse augusti lõpus 4. a eKr. Nad läksid otse Petlemma, kus arutasid kogu septembrikuu jooksul oma tuttavate ja sugulastega, kas sinna jääda või Naatsaretti naasta.

123:0.4 (1356.1) Joseph and Mary finally took leave of Alexandria on a boat belonging to their friend Ezraeon, bound for Joppa, arriving at that port late in August of the year 4 B.C. They went directly to Bethlehem, where they spent the entire month of September in counsel with their friends and relatives concerning whether they should remain there or return to Nazareth.

Maarja polnud kunagi päriselt loobunud mõttest, et Jeesus peaks kasvama üles Taaveti linnas Petlemmas. Joosep aga ei uskunudki tõeliselt, et nende pojast saab Iisraeli kuninglik vabastaja. Pealegi teadis ta, et ei põlvne tegelikult Taavetist; et ta oli arvatud Taaveti järeltulijate hulka vaid seepärast, et üks tema esivanematest oli Taaveti põlvnemisliini lapsendatud. Maarja pidas Taaveti linna muidugi kõige sobivamaks kohaks, kus uut Taaveti trooni taotlejat kasvatada, kuid Joosep eelistas riskida pigem Herodes Antipasega kui tema venna Arhelaosega. Ta kartis, et lapsel pole Petlemmas ega üheski teises Juudamaa linnas turvaline, ning oletas, et Arhelaos jätkab oma isa Herodese ähvardavat poliitikat tõenäolisemalt kui Antipas Galileas. Lisaks kõigile neile põhjustele pidas Joosep Galilead lapse kasvatamiseks ja talle hariduse andmiseks igati paremaks kohaks, kuid tal kulus Maarja vastuväidete kummutamiseks kolm nädalat.

123:0.5 (1356.2) Mary had never fully given up the idea that Jesus ought to grow up in Bethlehem, the City of David. Joseph did not really believe that their son was to become a kingly deliverer of Israel. Besides, he knew that he himself was not really a descendant of David; that his being reckoned among the offspring of David was due to the adoption of one of his ancestors into the Davidic line of descent. Mary, of course, thought the City of David the most appropriate place in which the new candidate for David’s throne could be reared, but Joseph preferred to take chances with Herod Antipas rather than with his brother Archelaus. He entertained great fears for the child’s safety in Bethlehem or in any other city in Judea, and surmised that Archelaus would be more likely to pursue the menacing policies of his father, Herod, than would Antipas in Galilee. And besides all these reasons, Joseph was outspoken in his preference for Galilee as a better place in which to rear and educate the child, but it required three weeks to overcome Mary’s objections.

Esimeseks oktoobriks oli Joosep Maarjat ja kõiki nende tuttavaid veennud, et neil on kõige õigem Naatsaretti minna. Nii lahkusidki nad oktoobri algul 4. a eKr Petlemmast ja rändasid Lüdda ja Skythopolise kaudu Naatsaretti. Nad alustasid teed ühel pühapäeva varahommikul, Maarja koos lapsega uue veolooma seljas, Joosep koos viie neid saatva sugulasega jalgsi, sest Joosepi sugulased ei lubanud neil üksi Naatsaretti reisida. Nad kartsid minna Galileasse Jeruusalemma ja Jordani oru kaudu ning ükski läänepoolne tee ei olnud päris ohutu kahele üksikule reisijale, kellel oli kaasas väike laps.

123:0.6 (1356.3) By the first of October Joseph had convinced Mary and all their friends that it was best for them to return to Nazareth. Accordingly, early in October, 4 B.C., they departed from Bethlehem for Nazareth, going by way of Lydda and Scythopolis. They started out early one Sunday morning, Mary and the child riding on their newly acquired beast of burden, while Joseph and five accompanying kinsmen proceeded on foot; Joseph’s relatives refused to permit them to make the trip to Nazareth alone. They feared to go to Galilee by Jerusalem and the Jordan valley, and the western routes were not altogether safe for two lone travelers with a child of tender years.

1. Tagasi Naatsaretis

1. Back in Nazareth

Reisi neljandal päeval jõudis reisiseltskond ohutult sihtkohta. Nad saabusid ette teatamata oma koju Naatsaretis, kus oli enam kui kolm aastat elanud üks Joosepi abielus vend, kes oli neid nähes tõesti üllatunud: nad olid oma asju nii vaikselt ajanud, et ei Joosepi ega Maarja perekond teadnud, et nad on üldse Aleksandriast lahkunud. Järgmisel päeval kolis Joosepi venna perekond majast välja ja Maarja seadis end esimest korda pärast Jeesuse sündi oma väikse perega sisse, et tunda rõõmu elust omaenese kodus. Vähem kui nädala pärast sai Joosep puusepana tööd ja nad olid ülimalt õnnelikud.

123:1.1 (1356.4) On the fourth day of the journey the party reached its destination in safety. They arrived unannounced at the Nazareth home, which had been occupied for more than three years by one of Joseph’s married brothers, who was indeed surprised to see them; so quietly had they gone about their business that neither the family of Joseph nor that of Mary knew they had even left Alexandria. The next day Joseph’s brother moved his family, and Mary, for the first time since Jesus’ birth, settled down with her little family to enjoy life in their own home. In less than a week Joseph secured work as a carpenter, and they were supremely happy.

Nende Naatsaretti tagasi jõudes oli Jeesus umbes kolm aastat ja kaks kuud vana. Ta oli kõigil rännakutel hästi vastu pidanud, tal oli suurepärane tervis ja ta oli täis lapselikku põnevust ja rõõmu oma kodust, kus ringi joosta ja ennast mõnusalt tunda. Samas tundis ta suurt puudust oma Aleksandriasse jäänud mängukaaslastest.

123:1.2 (1356.5) Jesus was about three years and two months old at the time of their return to Nazareth. He had stood all these travels very well and was in excellent health and full of childish glee and excitement at having premises of his own to run about in and to enjoy. But he greatly missed the association of his Alexandrian playmates.

Teel Naatsaretti oli Joosep Maarjat veennud, et poleks tark levitada nende Galilea tuttavate ja sugulaste seas juttu Jeesusest kui tõotatud lapsest. Nad leppisid kokku, et hoiduvad seda kellelegi mainimast. Nad pidasid mõlemad truult oma lubadust.

123:1.3 (1356.6) On the way to Nazareth Joseph had persuaded Mary that it would be unwise to spread the word among their Galilean friends and relatives that Jesus was a child of promise. They agreed to refrain from all mention of these matters to anyone. And they were both very faithful in keeping this promise.

Jeesuse kogu neljandat eluaastat iseloomustasid normaalne füüsiline areng ning ebatavaline vaimne aktiivsus. Ta sai väga lähedaseks peaaegu omavanuse naabripoisiga, kelle nimi oli Jaakob. Jeesus ja Jaakob mängisid alati rõõmsalt koos ja suureks kasvades said neist head sõbrad ning ustavad kaaslased.

123:1.4 (1357.1) Jesus’ entire fourth year was a period of normal physical development and of unusual mental activity. Meantime he had formed a very close attachment for a neighbor boy about his own age named Jacob. Jesus and Jacob were always happy in their play, and they grew up to be great friends and loyal companions.

Järgmine tähtis sündmus selles Naatsareti peres oli teise lapse Jaakobuse sünd 2. aprilli varajasel hommikutunnil 3. a eKr. Mõte väikevenna olemasolust tekitas Jeesuses elevust ja ta võis tundide kaupa seista ning imiku väikelapsetoiminguid jälgida.

123:1.5 (1357.2) The next important event in the life of this Nazareth family was the birth of the second child, James, in the early morning hours of April 2, 3 B.C. Jesus was thrilled by the thought of having a baby brother, and he would stand around by the hour just to observe the baby’s early activities.

Sama aasta kesksuvel ehitas Joosep küla allika ja karavanide peatuspaiga lähedale väikese töökoja. Pärast seda tegi ta igapäevast puusepatööd juba väga vähe. Tema juures töötasid ta kaks venda ja veel mitu meistrimeest, keda ta saatis tööle, jäädes ise töökotta kaelkooke ja atru ning muud puutööd tegema. Ta töötas ka naha, köite ja lõuendiga. Kasvuaastatel veetis Jeesus pärast kooli töökojas isa tööd vaadates ja neljast maailmanurgast tulnud karavanijuhtide ja reisijate vestlusi ning kuulujutte kuulates umbes sama palju aega kui ema kodustes töödes abistades.

123:1.6 (1357.3) It was midsummer of this same year that Joseph built a small workshop close to the village spring and near the caravan tarrying lot. After this he did very little carpenter work by the day. He had as associates two of his brothers and several other mechanics, whom he sent out to work while he remained at the shop making yokes and plows and doing other woodwork. He also did some work in leather and with rope and canvas. And Jesus, as he grew up, when not at school, spent his time about equally between helping his mother with home duties and watching his father work at the shop, meanwhile listening to the conversation and gossip of the caravan conductors and passengers from the four corners of the earth.

Sama aasta juulis kuu aega enne Jeesuse nelja-aastaseks saamist, levis kõikjal Naatsaretis karavanireisijate toodud raske kõhuhaigus. Maarja kartis nii väga Jeesuse haigestumist, et pakkis laste asjad kokku ja põgenes maale oma venna juurde, kes elas mitu kilomeetrit Naatsaretist lõuna pool Saridi lähedal Megiddosse viiva tee ääres. Nad olid Naatsaretist ära üle kahe kuu; Jeesusele meeldis seal väga, see oli tema esimene taluelukogemus.

123:1.7 (1357.4) In July of this year, one month before Jesus was four years old, an outbreak of malignant intestinal trouble spread over all Nazareth from contact with the caravan travelers. Mary became so alarmed by the danger of Jesus being exposed to this epidemic of disease that she bundled up both her children and fled to the country home of her brother, several miles south of Nazareth on the Megiddo road near Sarid. They did not return to Nazareth for more than two months; Jesus greatly enjoyed this, his first experience on a farm.

2. Viies eluaasta (2. a eKr)

2. The Fifth Year (2 B.C.)

Veidi enam kui aasta pärast Naatsaretti naasmist jõudis väike Jeesus ikka, mil tal tuli teha oma esimene täiesti isiklik ja siiras kõlbeline otsus; siis asus temasse elama Mõttekohandaja, Paradiisi-Isa jumalik kingitus, kes oli enne teeninud Machiventa Melkisedekit ja omandanud sel moel kogemuse tegutsemisest koos surelikuülese olendiga, kes on kehastunud ja elab surelikus ihus. See sündmus toimus 11. veebruaril 2. a eKr. Jeesus ei olnud jumaliku Järelevaataja saabumisest rohkem teadlik kui miljonid teised lapsed, kelle sisimasse on enne ja pärast seda päeva asunud samamoodi Mõttekohandaja, et täita nende meel vaimsusega ja töötada nende arenemisjärgus surelike hingede igavese ellujäämise nimel.

123:2.1 (1357.5) In something more than a year after the return to Nazareth the boy Jesus arrived at the age of his first personal and wholehearted moral decision; and there came to abide with him a Thought Adjuster, a divine gift of the Paradise Father, which had aforetime served with Machiventa Melchizedek, thus gaining the experience of functioning in connection with the incarnation of a supermortal being living in the likeness of mortal flesh. This event occurred on February 11, 2 B.C. Jesus was no more aware of the coming of the divine Monitor than are the millions upon millions of other children who, before and since that day, have likewise received these Thought Adjusters to indwell their minds and work for the ultimate spiritualization of these minds and the eternal survival of their evolving immortal souls.

Sel veebruaripäeval lõppes Universumi Valitsejate otsene isiklik järelevalve lapseks kehastunud Miikaeli puutumatuse üle. Sellest ajast pidi Jeesuse kehastumise kulg ja kaitse jääma tema sisimas elava Kohandaja ja kaitseseeravite hooleks. Aeg-ajalt lisandus neile ka keskteeliste hoolitsus, kellele selle planeedi juhid olid kindlad ülesanded andnud.

123:2.2 (1357.6) On this day in February the direct and personal supervision of the Universe Rulers, as it was related to the integrity of the childlike incarnation of Michael, terminated. From that time on throughout the human unfolding of the incarnation, the guardianship of Jesus was destined to rest in the keeping of this indwelling Adjuster and the associated seraphic guardians, supplemented from time to time by the ministry of midway creatures assigned for the performance of certain definite duties in accordance with the instruction of their planetary superiors.

Selle aasta augustis sai Jeesus viieaastaseks ja me nimetame seda aastat seepärast tema elu viiendaks (kalendri)aastaks. Sellel aastal, 11. juuli öösel 2. a eKr, veidi enam kui kuu aega enne tema viiendat sünnipäeva, valmistas Jeesusele suurt rõõmu õde Mirjami sünd. Järgmisel õhtul oli Jeesusel pikk jutuajamine oma isaga sellest, mil viisil erinevad elusolendiliigid üksikolenditena maailma sünnivad. Jeesuse varaseima hariduse kõige väärtuslikum osa pärines tema vanematelt, kes vastasid tema arukatele ja uurivatele küsimustele. Joosep püüdis alati korralikult oma kohust täita ja võttis poisi arvukatele küsimustele vastamist tõsiselt ning varus selleks piisavalt aega. Viiendast kümnenda eluaastani oli Jeesus üksainus suur küsimärk. Joosep ja Maarja ei osanud küll alati lapse küsimustele vastata, kuid arutasid need iga kord põhjalikult läbi ja püüdsid teda kõikvõimalikel muudel viisidel aidata tema püüdlustes leida rahuldav lahendus ta erksas meeles tekkinud probleemile.

123:2.3 (1357.7) Jesus was five years old in August of this year, and we will, therefore, refer to this as his fifth (calendar) year of life. In this year, 2 B.C., a little more than one month before his fifth birthday anniversary, Jesus was made very happy by the coming of his sister Miriam, who was born on the night of July 11. During the evening of the following day Jesus had a long talk with his father concerning the manner in which various groups of living things are born into the world as separate individuals. The most valuable part of Jesus’ early education was secured from his parents in answer to his thoughtful and searching inquiries. Joseph never failed to do his full duty in taking pains and spending time answering the boy’s numerous questions. From the time Jesus was five years old until he was ten, he was one continuous question mark. While Joseph and Mary could not always answer his questions, they never failed fully to discuss his inquiries and in every other possible way to assist him in his efforts to reach a satisfactory solution of the problem which his alert mind had suggested.

Pärast Naatsaretti tagasipöördumist oli nende perel olnud palju tegemist ja Joosepil uue töökoja ehitamisega ning ettevõtte taaskäivitamisega tavalisest rohkem tööd. Ta oli sellega nii seotud olnud, et polnud leidnud aega Jaakobusele hälligi meisterdada, kuid ammu enne Mirjami sündi oli asi paranenud, nii et tüdruk sai väga mugava hälli, milles ta tundis end mõnusalt nagu pesas, kui kogu pere teda imetles. Lapsena osales Jeesus innukalt kõigis harilikes igapäevastes kodustes ettevõtmistes. Ta tundis oma väikevennast ja -õest suurt rõõmu ning oli Maarjale nende eest hoolitsemisel suureks abiks.

123:2.4 (1358.1) Since returning to Nazareth, theirs had been a busy household, and Joseph had been unusually occupied building his new shop and getting his business started again. So fully was he occupied that he had found no time to build a cradle for James, but this was corrected long before Miriam came, so that she had a very comfortable crib in which to nestle while the family admired her. And the child Jesus heartily entered into all these natural and normal home experiences. He greatly enjoyed his little brother and his baby sister and was of great help to Mary in their care.

Tol ajal oli paganlikus maailmas vähe kodusid, mis suutsid anda lapsele parema intellektuaalse, kõlbelise ja usulise koolituse kui Galilea juutide kodud. Juutidel oli oma laste kasvatamiseks ja neile hariduse andmiseks süstemaatiline programm. Nad jagasid lapse elu seitsmesse etappi:

123:2.5 (1358.2) There were few homes in the gentile world of those days that could give a child a better intellectual, moral, and religious training than the Jewish homes of Galilee. These Jews had a systematic program for rearing and educating their children. They divided a child’s life into seven stages:

1. vastsündinu, esimesest kaheksanda elupäevani;

123:2.6 (1358.3) 1. The newborn child, the first to the eighth day.

2. rinnalaps;

123:2.7 (1358.4) 2. The suckling child.

3. võõrutatud laps;

123:2.8 (1358.5) 3. The weaned child.

4. emast sõltuvuse periood viienda eluaasta lõpuni;

123:2.9 (1358.6) 4. The period of dependence on the mother, lasting up to the end of the fifth year.

5. lapse iseseisvuse algus, poja puhul siirdub vastutus tema hariduse eest isale;

123:2.10 (1358.7) 5. The beginning independence of the child and, with sons, the father assuming responsibility for their education.

6. nooruk või neiu;

123:2.11 (1358.8) 6. The adolescent youths and maidens.

7. noor mees või naine.

123:2.12 (1358.9) 7. The young men and the young women.

Galilea juutide tava järgi vastutas viienda sünnipäevani lapse koolituse eest ema, kui oli tegemist poisslapsega, hakkas poisi hariduse eest sealtmaalt vastutama isa. Seega jõudis Jeesus sel aastal Galilea juudi perekonna lapse elujärgu viiendasse etappi ja 21. augustil 2. a eKr andis Maarja tema edasise õpetamise ametlikult Joosepile üle.

123:2.13 (1358.10) It was the custom of the Galilean Jews for the mother to bear the responsibility for a child’s training until the fifth birthday, and then, if the child were a boy, to hold the father responsible for the lad’s education from that time on. This year, therefore, Jesus entered upon the fifth stage of a Galilean Jewish child’s career, and accordingly on August 21, 2 B.C., Mary formally turned him over to Joseph for further instruction.

Kuigi Jeesuse intellektuaalse ja usulise hariduse eest oli nüüd otseselt vastutav Joosep, oli ema poja kodusest õppetööst ikkagi huvitatud. Ta õpetas teda tundma koduaeda igast küljest ümbritsevatel müüridel kasvavaid viinamarju ja muid taimi ning nende eest hoolitsema. Ta pani maja katusele (suvisesse magamistuppa) madalad liivakastid, millesse Jeesus joonistas maakaarte ja kus harjutas esimesi aramea, kreeka ja hiljem heebrea tekste kirjutama, sest ta õppis aja jooksul kõigis neis keeltes lugema, kirjutama ja soravalt rääkima.

123:2.14 (1358.11) Though Joseph was now assuming the direct responsibility for Jesus’ intellectual and religious education, his mother still interested herself in his home training. She taught him to know and care for the vines and flowers growing about the garden walls which completely surrounded the home plot. She also provided on the roof of the house (the summer bedroom) shallow boxes of sand in which Jesus worked out maps and did much of his early practice at writing Aramaic, Greek, and later on, Hebrew, for in time he learned to read, write, and speak, fluently, all three languages.

Jeesus paistis olevat füüsiliselt peaaegu täiuslik ja ka emotsionaalselt normaalselt arenev laps. Elu viienda (kalendri)aasta teisel poolel olid tal kerged seedehäired, mis oli tema esimene suurem haigus.

123:2.15 (1358.12) Jesus appeared to be a well-nigh perfect child physically and continued to make normal progress mentally and emotionally. He experienced a mild digestive upset, his first minor illness, in the latter part of this, his fifth (calendar) year.

Joosep ja Maarja rääkisid sageli oma vanima lapse tulevikust, aga kui te oleksite seal ise viibinud, oleksite näinud vaid tavalise terve ja muretu, kuid oma aja ning koha kohta erakordselt uudishimuliku lapse üleskasvamist.

123:2.16 (1359.1) Though Joseph and Mary often talked about the future of their eldest child, had you been there, you would only have observed the growing up of a normal, healthy, carefree, but exceedingly inquisitive child of that time and place.

3. Kuuenda eluaasta sündmused (1. a eKr)

3. Events of the Sixth Year (1 B.C.)

Jeesus oli omandanud oma ema abiga juba aramea keele galilea murde, nüüd hakkas isa talle kreeka keelt õpetama. Maarja oskas kreeka keelt vähe, kuid Joosep rääkis soravalt nii aramea kui ka kreeka keelt. Kreeka keele õpikuna kasutasid nad heebrea pühakirja — seaduste ja prohvetite raamatute, samuti laulude täielikku kogu, mis neile Egiptusest lahkumisel oli kingitud. Kogu Naatsaretis oli ainult kaks pühakirja täielikku kreekakeelset koopiat ja see, et üks neist oli puusepa perekonnas, tegi Joosepi kodust paljukülastatud koha ning võimaldas Jeesusel kasvades kohata peaaegu lõputu vooluna saabuvaid tõsiseid õppureid ja siiraid tõeotsijaid. Enne selle aasta lõppu oli Jeesus hindamatu käsikirja oma valdusesse võtnud, sest talle oli tema kuuendal sünnipäeval öeldud, et selle püha raamatu on talle kinkinud tema tuttavad ja sugulased Aleksandriast. Üsna pea oskas ta seda juba vabalt lugeda.

123:3.1 (1359.2) Already, with his mother’s help, Jesus had mastered the Galilean dialect of the Aramaic tongue; and now his father began teaching him Greek. Mary spoke little Greek, but Joseph was a fluent speaker of both Aramaic and Greek. The textbook for the study of the Greek language was the copy of the Hebrew scriptures — a complete version of the law and the prophets, including the Psalms — which had been presented to them on leaving Egypt. There were only two complete copies of the Scriptures in Greek in all Nazareth, and the possession of one of them by the carpenter’s family made Joseph’s home a much-sought place and enabled Jesus, as he grew up, to meet an almost endless procession of earnest students and sincere truth seekers. Before this year ended, Jesus had assumed custody of this priceless manuscript, having been told on his sixth birthday that the sacred book had been presented to him by Alexandrian friends and relatives. And in a very short time he could read it readily.

Jeesuse noorusea esimene vapustus saabus siis, kui ta polnud veel kuueaastanegi. Talle oli tundunud, et ta isa — või vähemalt emaga koos — teab kõike. Seega võite kujutleda uudishimuliku lapse üllatust, kui ta küsis oma isalt äsjatoimunud kerge maavärina põhjust ja kuulis Joosepit ütlemas: „Mu poeg, ma tõesti ei tea.” Jeesuse avastusest, et tema maised vanemad ei ole ülitargad ega kõiketeadvad, sai alguse kauakestev ja häiriv pettumus.

123:3.2 (1359.3) The first great shock of Jesus’ young life occurred when he was not quite six years old. It had seemed to the lad that his father — at least his father and mother together — knew everything. Imagine, therefore, the surprise of this inquiring child, when he asked his father the cause of a mild earthquake which had just occurred, to hear Joseph say, “My son, I really do not know.” Thus began that long and disconcerting disillusionment in the course of which Jesus found out that his earthly parents were not all-wise and all-knowing.

Joosep mõtles algul Jeesusele öelda, et maavärina tekitas Jumal, aga hetke järele mõelnud, sai ta aru, et niisugune vastus võib esile kutsuda uusi ja veelgi enam kimbatust valmistavaid küsimusi. Isegi Jeesuse varases lapseeas oli tema küsimustele füüsiliste ja sotsiaalsete nähtuste kohta väga raske mõtlematult vastata, et need on kas Jumalast või kuradist. Jeesus oli pikka aega nõus pidama õpetust headest ja kurjadest vaimudest, mida juudi rahvas valdavalt uskus, intellektuaalsete ja vaimsete nähtuste võimalikuks seletuseks, kuid hakkas üsna varakult kahtlema, kas need nähtamatud mõjud põhjustavad maailmas ka füüsilisi loodusnähtusi.

123:3.3 (1359.4) Joseph’s first thought was to tell Jesus that the earthquake had been caused by God, but a moment’s reflection admonished him that such an answer would immediately be provocative of further and still more embarrassing inquiries. Even at an early age it was very difficult to answer Jesus’ questions about physical or social phenomena by thoughtlessly telling him that either God or the devil was responsible. In harmony with the prevailing belief of the Jewish people, Jesus was long willing to accept the doctrine of good spirits and evil spirits as the possible explanation of mental and spiritual phenomena, but he very early became doubtful that such unseen influences were responsible for the physical happenings of the natural world.

Enne Jeesuse kuueaastaseks saamist, varasuvel 1. a eKr, tulid Naatsareti perekonda külastama Sakarias ja Eliisabet oma poja Johannesega. Jeesusele ja Johannesele oli see nende mäletamist mööda esimene külaskäik õnnelikuks ajaks. Kuigi külalised said jääda vaid mõneks päevaks, rääkisid vanemad omavahel paljudest asjadest, kaasa arvatud poegade tulevikku puudutavatest plaanidest. Sel ajal mängisid poisid ise maja katusel liiva sees klotsidega ja veetsid lõbusalt aega nagu poisid ikka.

123:3.4 (1359.5) Before Jesus was six years of age, in the early summer of 1 B.C., Zacharias and Elizabeth and their son John came to visit the Nazareth family. Jesus and John had a happy time during this, their first visit within their memories. Although the visitors could remain only a few days, the parents talked over many things, including the future plans for their sons. While they were thus engaged, the lads played with blocks in the sand on top of the house and in many other ways enjoyed themselves in true boyish fashion.

Kohtunud Johannesega, kes pärines Jeruusalemma lähedalt, hakkas Jeesus tundma ebatavaliselt suurt huvi Iisraeli ajaloo vastu ja uurima üksikasjalikult hingamispäevariituste, sünagoogide jutluste ning ikka ja jälle toimuvate mälestuspühade tähendust. Ta isa seletas talle kõigi nende pühade tähtsust. Esimene neist oli kesktalvine pidulik valgustepüha, mis kestis kaheksa päeva, kusjuures alustati ühe küünla süütamisest ja igal õhtul lisati uus küünal. Sellega mälestati templi pühitsemist pärast seda, kui Juudas Makkabi taastas templis Moosese seaduste järgi toimunud teenistused. Järgmine oli juutide varakevadine rõõmupüha puurim, Estri ja tema kaudu Iisraeli vabanemise püha. Sellele järgnes pidulik paasapüha, mida täiskasvanud pühitsesid võimaluse korral alati Jeruusalemmas, lapsed aga pidasid kodus meeles, et kogu nädala ei tohi süüa hapendatud leiba. Edasi tuli uudseviljapüha; ja viimane, kõige pühalikum, oli uusaastapäev, lepituspüha. Kuigi Jeesuse noorel meelel oli neist pühadest ja kommetest kohati raske aru saada, mõtles ta nende üle tõsiselt ja osales siis innukalt lehtmajadepüha pidustustes, mis oli kogu juudi rahvale iga-aastane puhkuseaeg, mil nad elasid väljas lehtonnides ja andusid rõõmudele ning naudingutele.

123:3.5 (1359.6) Having met John, who came from near Jerusalem, Jesus began to evince an unusual interest in the history of Israel and to inquire in great detail as to the meaning of the Sabbath rites, the synagogue sermons, and the recurring feasts of commemoration. His father explained to him the meaning of all these seasons. The first was the midwinter festive illumination, lasting eight days, starting out with one candle the first night and adding one each successive night; this commemorated the dedication of the temple after the restoration of the Mosaic services by Judas Maccabee. Next came the early springtime celebration of Purim, the feast of Esther and Israel’s deliverance through her. Then followed the solemn Passover, which the adults celebrated in Jerusalem whenever possible, while at home the children would remember that no leavened bread was to be eaten for the whole week. Later came the feast of the first-fruits, the harvest ingathering; and last, the most solemn of all, the feast of the new year, the day of atonement. While some of these celebrations and observances were difficult for Jesus’ young mind to understand, he pondered them seriously and then entered fully into the joy of the feast of tabernacles, the annual vacation season of the whole Jewish people, the time when they camped out in leafy booths and gave themselves up to mirth and pleasure.

Joosepile ja Maarjale valmistasid sel aastal muret Jeesuse palved. Poiss soovis rääkida oma taevase Isaga peaaegu samamoodi nagu oma maise isa Joosepiga. See kõrvalekaldumine pühalikumast ja aupaklikumast suhtlemisest Jumalusega ajas tema vanemaid, eriti ema veidi segadusse, kuid nad ei suutnud poissi veenda ennast muutma; ta palvetas nii, nagu talle oli õpetatud, ja pärast seda soovis „lihtsalt oma taevase Isaga veidi vestelda”.

123:3.6 (1360.1) During this year Joseph and Mary had trouble with Jesus about his prayers. He insisted on talking to his heavenly Father much as he would talk to Joseph, his earthly father. This departure from the more solemn and reverent modes of communication with Deity was a bit disconcerting to his parents, especially to his mother, but there was no persuading him to change; he would say his prayers just as he had been taught, after which he insisted on having “just a little talk with my Father in heaven.”

Sama aasta juunis andis Joosep oma töökoja Naatsaretis vendadele üle ja alustas ametlikult tegevust ehitusettevõtjana. Enne aasta lõppu oli pere sissetulek enam kui kolmekordistunud. Naatsareti peret ei pitsitanud kuni Joosepi surmani enam kunagi vaesus. Pere kasvas üha suuremaks ja kulutas palju raha lisaharidusele ning reisidele, kuid Joosepi suurenevad sissetulekud pidasid kasvavate kulutustega alati sammu.

123:3.7 (1360.2) In June of this year Joseph turned the shop in Nazareth over to his brothers and formally entered upon his work as a builder. Before the year was over, the family income had more than trebled. Never again, until after Joseph’s death, did the Nazareth family feel the pinch of poverty. The family grew larger and larger, and they spent much money on extra education and travel, but always Joseph’s increasing income kept pace with the growing expenses.

Paaril järgmisel aastal tegi Joosep üsna palju tööd Kaanas, (Galilea) Petlemmas, Magdalas, Nainis, Sepphorises, Kapernaumas ja Een-Dooris ning ehitas üsna palju ka Naatsaretis ja selle ümbruses. Kui Jaakobus oli juba piisavalt suur, et ema kodus aidata ja nooremate laste eest hoolitseda, rändas Jeesus sageli koos isaga neisse ümbruskonna linnadesse ja küladesse. Jeesus oli väga tähelepanelik ja sai neilt reisidelt palju praktilisi teadmisi, talletades usinalt mällu tähelepanekuid inimese ja tema maapealse eluviisi kohta.

123:3.8 (1360.3) The next few years Joseph did considerable work at Cana, Bethlehem (of Galilee), Magdala, Nain, Sepphoris, Capernaum, and Endor, as well as much building in and near Nazareth. As James grew up to be old enough to help his mother with the housework and care of the younger children, Jesus made frequent trips away from home with his father to these surrounding towns and villages. Jesus was a keen observer and gained much practical knowledge from these trips away from home; he was assiduously storing up knowledge regarding man and the way he lived on earth.

Sel aastal suutis Jeesus oma tugevaid tundeid ja impulsse paremini kohandada perekondliku koostöö ja koduse distsipliini vajadustega. Maarja oli armastav ema, kuid nõudis üsna ranget distsipliini. Joosepil oli Jeesuse üle suurem mõjuvõim, ta tavatses poisiga istet võtta ja selgitada talle põhjalikult, miks kogu pere heaolu ja rahu nimel on vaja isiklikke soove distsipliiniga ohjeldada. Kui Jeesusele oli olukorda selgitatud, oli ta alati arukalt nõus koostööd tegema ning vanemate soove ja perekonnas kehtivaid reegleid austama.

123:3.9 (1360.4) This year Jesus made great progress in adjusting his strong feelings and vigorous impulses to the demands of family co-operation and home discipline. Mary was a loving mother but a fairly strict disciplinarian. In many ways, however, Joseph exerted the greater control over Jesus as it was his practice to sit down with the boy and fully explain the real and underlying reasons for the necessity of disciplinary curtailment of personal desires in deference to the welfare and tranquillity of the entire family. When the situation had been explained to Jesus, he was always intelligently and willingly co-operative with parental wishes and family regulations.

Oma vaba aja — kui polnud vaja majapidamises ema aidata — veetis ta päeval lilli ja muid taimi ning öösiti tähti uurides. Vanemaid tegi ärevaks tema kalduvus lamada selili ja vaadata imetledes tähistaevast veel kaua pärast selle kordaarmastava Naatsareti pere tavalist magamaminekuaega.

123:3.10 (1360.5) Much of his spare time — when his mother did not require his help about the house — was spent studying the flowers and plants by day and the stars by night. He evinced a troublesome penchant for lying on his back and gazing wonderingly up into the starry heavens long after his usual bedtime in this well-ordered Nazareth household.

4. Seitsmes eluaasta (1. a pKr)

4. The Seventh Year (A.D. 1)

See oli Jeesuse elus tõesti sündmusterikas aasta. Jaanuari algul oli Galileas tugev lumetorm. Mahasadanud lumekiht oli üle poole meetri paks ja see oli suurim lumesadu, mida Jeesus oma elu jooksul üldse nägi, ning üks paksemaid lumikatteid Naatsaretis saja aasta jooksul.

123:4.1 (1361.1) This was, indeed, an eventful year in Jesus’ life. Early in January a great snowstorm occurred in Galilee. Snow fell two feet deep, the heaviest snowfall Jesus saw during his lifetime and one of the deepest at Nazareth in a hundred years.

Juudi laste mängud olid Jeesuse ajal üsna piiratud, lapsed matkisid oma mängudes liigagi sageli täiskasvanute tõsisemaid tegemisi. Nad mängisid palju pulmi ja matuseid, sageli nähtud vaatemängulisi tseremooniaid. Nad tantsisid ja laulsid, kuid neil oli vähe organiseeritud mänge, mida on mänginud hilisemate aegade lapsed.

123:4.2 (1361.2) The play life of Jewish children in the times of Jesus was rather circumscribed; all too often the children played at the more serious things they observed their elders doing. They played much at weddings and funerals, ceremonies which they so frequently saw and which were so spectacular. They danced and sang but had few organized games, such as children of later days so much enjoy.

Jeesus mängis koos ühe naabripoisiga ja hiljem vend Jaakobusega meeleldi puusepatöökoja taganurgas, kus oli nende jaoks palju laaste ja puuklotse. Jeesusel oli raske aru saada, miks osa mänge on sabati ajal keelatud, kuid ta täitis alati oma vanemate soovi. Tal oli oma ajastu ja põlvkonna tingimustes vähe võimalusi oma tugevat nalja- ja mängusoont välja elada, kuid neljateistkümnenda eluaastani oli ta enamasti rõõmsameelne ja muretu.

123:4.3 (1361.3) Jesus, in company with a neighbor boy and later his brother James, delighted to play in the far corner of the family carpenter shop, where they had great fun with the shavings and the blocks of wood. It was always difficult for Jesus to comprehend the harm of certain sorts of play which were forbidden on the Sabbath, but he never failed to conform to his parents’ wishes. He had a capacity for humor and play which was afforded little opportunity for expression in the environment of his day and generation, but up to the age of fourteen he was cheerful and lighthearted most of the time.

Maarjal oli maja kõrval asuva lauda peal tuvila ja tuvide müügist teenitud kasumi annetasid nad erilisse Jeesuse hallatud heategevusfondi, kui olid rahast maha arvanud kümnise ja maksnud selle sünagoogi ametnikule.

123:4.4 (1361.4) Mary maintained a dovecote on top of the animal house adjoining the home, and they used the profits from the sale of doves as a special charity fund, which Jesus administered after he deducted the tithe and turned it over to the officer of the synagogue.

Ainus tõeline õnnetus, mis Jeesusega selle ajani oli juhtunud, oli allakukkumine tagaõue kivitrepist, mis viis lõuendist katusega magamistuppa. See juhtus juulikuus, ootamatult idast saabunud liivatormi ajal. Peent liiva tuiskavad kuumad tuuled puhusid tavaliselt vihmahooajal, eriti märtsis ja aprillis. Juulis oli niisugune torm erakordne sündmus. Tormi puhkedes mängis Jeesus nagu ikka katusel, sest see oli kuival aastaajal tema tavaline mängukoht. Kui ta hakkas trepist alla minema, pimestas liiv teda ja ta kukkus. Pärast seda õnnetusjuhtumit ehitas Joosep trepile mõlemale poole käsipuu.

123:4.5 (1361.5) The only real accident Jesus had up to this time was a fall down the back-yard stone stairs which led up to the canvas-roofed bedroom. It happened during an unexpected July sandstorm from the east. The hot winds, carrying blasts of fine sand, usually blew during the rainy season, especially in March and April. It was extraordinary to have such a storm in July. When the storm came up, Jesus was on the housetop playing, as was his habit, for during much of the dry season this was his accustomed playroom. He was blinded by the sand when descending the stairs and fell. After this accident Joseph built a balustrade up both sides of the stairway.

Seda õnnetust polnud kuidagi võimalik ära hoida. Hooletuses ei saanud süüdistada keskteelistest ajalikke kaitsjaid, poisi juurde valvama määratud üht esmast ja üht teisest keskteelist, süüdi polnud ka kaitseseeravid. Seda lihtsalt ei saanud vältida. Kuid see kerge õnnetus, mis juhtus Joosepi Een-Dooris viibimise ajal, tekitas Maarjas nii suurt ärevust, et ta püüdis Jeesust mitu kuud endale väga lähedal hoida, kuigi see polnud eriti tark tegu.

123:4.6 (1361.6) There was no way in which this accident could have been prevented. It was not chargeable to neglect by the midway temporal guardians, one primary and one secondary midwayer having been assigned to the watchcare of the lad; neither was it chargeable to the guardian seraphim. It simply could not have been avoided. But this slight accident, occurring while Joseph was absent in Endor, caused such great anxiety to develop in Mary’s mind that she unwisely tried to keep Jesus very close to her side for some months.

Taevased isiksused ei sekku omavoliliselt ainelistesse õnnetustesse, igapäevastesse füüsilise iseloomuga juhtumistesse. Tavalises olukorras saavad tõotatud mees- ja naisisikute kaitsmiseks sekkuda ainelistesse tingimustesse ainult keskteelised ja ka need olendid võivad seda teha ainult erandkorras kõrgemalt saadud konkreetse korralduse põhjal.

123:4.7 (1361.7) Material accidents, commonplace occurrences of a physical nature, are not arbitrarily interfered with by celestial personalities. Under ordinary circumstances only midway creatures can intervene in material conditions to safeguard the persons of men and women of destiny, and even in special situations these beings can so act only in obedience to the specific mandates of their superiors.

See oli aga vaid üks mitmest väiksemast õnnetusest, mis selle uudishimuliku ja seiklushimulise noormehega juhtus. Kui kujutlete ühe tavalise aktiivse poisi lapsepõlve ja noorusiga, oskate üsna hästi arvata, kui palju muret ta oma vanematele, eriti emale tekitas.

123:4.8 (1361.8) And this was but one of a number of such minor accidents which subsequently befell this inquisitive and adventurous youth. If you envisage the average childhood and youth of an aggressive boy, you will have a fairly good idea of the youthful career of Jesus, and you will be able to imagine just about how much anxiety he caused his parents, particularly his mother.

Naatsareti pere neljas liige Joosep sündis kolmapäeva, 16. märtsi hommikul 1. a pKr.

123:4.9 (1362.1) The fourth member of the Nazareth family, Joseph, was born Wednesday morning, March 16, A.D. 1.

5. Koolipäevad Naatsaretis

5. School Days in Nazareth

Jeesus oli nüüd seitsmeaastane ja selles vanuses pidid juudi lapsed hakkama sünagoogikoolides ametlikult haridust omandama. Selle aasta augustis algaski Jeesusel Naatsaretis sündmusrikas kooliaeg. Poiss luges, kirjutas ja rääkis juba soravalt kaht keelt, aramea ja kreeka keelt. Nüüd tuli tal õppida lugema, kirjutama ja rääkima heebrea keelt. Ta ootas eesseisvat koolielu tõesti innukalt.

123:5.1 (1362.2) Jesus was now seven years old, the age when Jewish children were supposed to begin their formal education in the synagogue schools. Accordingly, in August of this year he entered upon his eventful school life at Nazareth. Already this lad was a fluent reader, writer, and speaker of two languages, Aramaic and Greek. He was now to acquaint himself with the task of learning to read, write, and speak the Hebrew language. And he was truly eager for the new school life which was ahead of him.

Jeesus käis kolm aastat — kuni kümneaastaseks saamiseni — Naatsareti sünagoogi algkoolis. Nende kolme aasta jooksul uuris ta heebrea keeles kirja pandud Seadusteraamatu põhialuseid. Järgmised kolm aastat veetis ta edasijõudnute koolis ja õppis valjusti korrates pähe pühade seaduste sügavamaid õpetusi. Ta lõpetas sünagoogikooli oma kolmeteistkümnendal eluaastal, mil sünagoogi juhid andsid ta tema vanematele üle haritud ja „käsuseadusi tundva pojana”, kes oli nüüdsest Iisraeli riigi vastutusvõimeline kodanik, millega kaasnes õigus osaleda Jeruusalemmas paasapüha pidustustel. Tol aastal käiski Jeesus koos oma isa ja emaga esmakordselt paasapühal.

123:5.2 (1362.3) For three years — until he was ten — he attended the elementary school of the Nazareth synagogue. For these three years he studied the rudiments of the Book of the Law as it was recorded in the Hebrew tongue. For the following three years he studied in the advanced school and committed to memory, by the method of repeating aloud, the deeper teachings of the sacred law. He graduated from this school of the synagogue during his thirteenth year and was turned over to his parents by the synagogue rulers as an educated “son of the commandment” — henceforth a responsible citizen of the commonwealth of Israel, all of which entailed his attendance at the Passovers in Jerusalem; accordingly, he attended his first Passover that year in company with his father and mother.

Õpilased istusid Naatsareti koolis poolkaares põrandal; õpetaja, hazan, sünagoogi ametnik istus aga nende vastas. Nad alustasid Kolmandast Moosese raamatust, seejärel õppisid teisi seaduseraamatuid ja uurisid prohvetite raamatuid ning psalme. Naatsareti sünagoogil oli pühakirjade täielik heebreakeelne kogu. Kuni kaheteistkümnenda eluaastani ei õpitud midagi muud kui pühakirju. Suvekuudel olid koolipäevad palju lühemad.

123:5.3 (1362.4) At Nazareth the pupils sat on the floor in a semicircle, while their teacher, the chazan, an officer of the synagogue, sat facing them. Beginning with the Book of Leviticus, they passed on to the study of the other books of the law, followed by the study of the Prophets and the Psalms. The Nazareth synagogue possessed a complete copy of the Scriptures in Hebrew. Nothing but the Scriptures was studied prior to the twelfth year. In the summer months the hours for school were greatly shortened.

Jeesusest sai õige kiiresti meisterlik heebrea keele tundja ja kui Naatsaretis ei viibinud parajasti mõnda tähtsat külalist, paluti tal tema nooruses sageli sabatiteenistusele kogunenud usklikele heebreakeelset pühakirja ette lugeda.

123:5.4 (1362.5) Jesus early became a master of Hebrew, and as a young man, when no visitor of prominence happened to be sojourning in Nazareth, he would often be asked to read the Hebrew scriptures to the faithful assembled in the synagogue at the regular Sabbath services.

Neil sünagoogikoolidel polnud muidugi mingeid õpikuid. Õpetamine toimus nii, et hazan ütles lause ja õpilased kordasid seda kooris. Kui õpilane sai kasutada kirjalikke seaduseraamatuid, õppis ta neist valjusti lugedes ja pidevalt korrates.

123:5.5 (1362.6) These synagogue schools, of course, had no textbooks. In teaching, the chazan would utter a statement while the pupils would in unison repeat it after him. When having access to the written books of the law, the student learned his lesson by reading aloud and by constant repetition.

Lisaks ametlikule koolitarkusele hakkas Jeesus aimu saama ka maailma igast nurgast saabuvate inimeste loomusest, sest tema isa töökojas käis inimesi paljudest maadest. Vanemaks saades vestles ta vabalt karavanireisijatega, kes allika ääres puhkasid ja einestasid. Hea kreeka keele oskajana polnud tal karavanireisijate ja -juhtidega suhtlemisel peaaegu üldse raskusi.

123:5.6 (1362.7) Next, in addition to his more formal schooling, Jesus began to make contact with human nature from the four quarters of the earth as men from many lands passed in and out of his father’s repair shop. When he grew older, he mingled freely with the caravans as they tarried near the spring for rest and nourishment. Being a fluent speaker of Greek, he had little trouble in conversing with the majority of the caravan travelers and conductors.

Naatsaret oli karavanitee vahejaam ja reisiteede ristumispunkt, selle elanikkond oli suures osas paganlik; samal ajal tunti seda laialt kui juudi traditsiooniliste seaduste liberaalse tõlgendamise keskust. Galileas suhtlesid juudid paganatega vabamalt, kui Juudamaal tavaks oli. Naatsareti juudid tõlgendasid aga sotsiaalseid piiranguid, mis põhinesid kartusel end paganatega kokku puutudes rüvetada, liberaalsemalt kui üheski teises Galilea linnas. Ning neis tingimustes levis Jeruusalemmas ütlus: „Mis võib küll Naatsaretist head tulla?”

123:5.7 (1362.8) Nazareth was a caravan way station and crossroads of travel and largely gentile in population; at the same time it was widely known as a center of liberal interpretation of Jewish traditional law. In Galilee the Jews mingled more freely with the gentiles than was their practice in Judea. And of all the cities of Galilee, the Jews of Nazareth were most liberal in their interpretation of the social restrictions based on the fears of contamination as a result of contact with the gentiles. And these conditions gave rise to the common saying in Jerusalem, “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?”

Oma moraalsed tõekspidamised ja vaimukultuuri omandas Jeesus põhiliselt kodus. Hazanilt sai ta suure osa intellektuaalsest ja teoloogilisest haridusest. Kuid oma tõelise hariduse — meele ja südame valmisoleku raskete eluprobleemidega silmitsiseismiseks — sai ta kaasinimestega suhtlemisest. Just see lähedane suhe teiste inimestega, nii noorte kui vanade, nii juutide kui paganatega andis talle võimaluse inimkonda tundma õppida. Jeesus oli omandanud oskuse inimesi täielikult mõista ja ustavalt armastada.

123:5.8 (1363.1) Jesus received his moral training and spiritual culture chiefly in his own home. He secured much of his intellectual and theological education from the chazan. But his real education — that equipment of mind and heart for the actual test of grappling with the difficult problems of life — he obtained by mingling with his fellow men. It was this close association with his fellow men, young and old, Jew and gentile, that afforded him the opportunity to know the human race. Jesus was highly educated in that he thoroughly understood men and devotedly loved them.

Oma sünagoogiaastatel oli ta hiilgav õpilane, tema suureks eeliseks oli kolme keele valdamine. Kui Jeesus koolis kursuse lõpetas, märkis Naatsareti hazan Joosepile, et ilmselt õppis tema Jeesuse uurivatest küsimustest rohkem, kui suutis ise poisile õpetada.

123:5.9 (1363.2) Throughout his years at the synagogue he was a brilliant student, possessing a great advantage since he was conversant with three languages. The Nazareth chazan, on the occasion of Jesus’ finishing the course in his school, remarked to Joseph that he feared he “had learned more from Jesus’ searching questions” than he had “been able to teach the lad.”

Jeesus õppis oma kooliaastatel palju uut ja sai suurt innustust sünagoogis toimunud sabatijutlustest. Tavaliselt paluti sabatiks Naatsaretti saabunud tähtsaid külalisi sünagoogis esineda. Kasvades kuulis Jeesus paljusid suuri mõtlejaid kogu juudi maailmast oma seisukohti esitamas, sealhulgas paljusid sugugi mitte ortodoksseid juute, sest Naatsareti sünagoog oli eesrindlik ja liberaalne heebrea mõtte ning kultuuri keskus.

123:5.10 (1363.3) Throughout his course of study Jesus learned much and derived great inspiration from the regular Sabbath sermons in the synagogue. It was customary to ask distinguished visitors, stopping over the Sabbath in Nazareth, to address the synagogue. As Jesus grew up, he heard many great thinkers of the entire Jewish world expound their views, and many also who were hardly orthodox Jews since the synagogue of Nazareth was an advanced and liberal center of Hebrew thought and culture.

Kui lapsed seitsmeaastaselt kooli astusid (juudid olid just kehtestanud kohustusliku hariduse seaduse), oli tavaks, et nad valisid endale „sünnipäevateksti”, omamoodi kuldreegli, millest õpingute ajal juhinduti ja mis sai kolmeteistkümneaastaselt kooli lõpetades sageli lahti räägitud. Jeesus oli valinud teksti prohvet Jesajalt: „Issanda Jumala Vaim on minu peal, sest Issand on mind võidnud; ta on mind läkitanud viima rõõmusõnumit alandlikele, parandama neid, kel murtud süda, kuulutama vabastust vangidele ja avama vaimupimedate silmi.”

123:5.11 (1363.4) When entering school at seven years (at this time the Jews had just inaugurated a compulsory education law), it was customary for the pupils to choose their “birthday text,” a sort of golden rule to guide them throughout their studies, one upon which they often expatiated at their graduation when thirteen years old. The text which Jesus chose was from the Prophet Isaiah: “The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, for the Lord has anointed me; he has sent me to bring good news to the meek, to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and to set the spiritual prisoners free.”

Naatsaret oli üks heebrea rahva kahekümne neljast preestrite keskusest. Ent Galilea preesterkond tõlgendas traditsioonilisi seadusi liberaalsemalt kui Juuda kirjatargad ja rabid. Naatsaretis oldi ka sabati pidamisel vabameelsemad. Seepärast tavatses Joosep viia Jeesuse sabati pärastlõunal jalutama ja üks nende lemmikretki oli ronimine kõrgele mäele nende kodu lähedal, sest sealt avanes panoraamne vaade kogu Galileale. Loodes nägid nad selgetel päevadel pikka järveni ulatuvat Karmeli mäe ahelikku ja Jeesus kuulis korduvalt oma isa jutustamas lugu Eelijast, ühest esimesest heebrea prohvetite pikas reas, kes tegi etteheiteid Ahabile ja paljastas Baali preestreid. Põhja pool kõrgus majesteetlikus hiilguses Hermoni mäe lumine tipp, mis hõivas kogu silmapiiri: ülemised nõlvad särasid peaaegu kilomeetri ulatuses igilumes. Kaugel idas võisid nad eristada Jordani orgu ja taamal Moabi kaljumägesid. Lõunas ja idas võisid nad näha ka Kreeka-Rooma Dekapolise linnu sealsete amfiteatrite ja uhkeldavate templitega, kui päike nende marmormüüridele paistis. Jäänud sinna päikeseloojanguni, eristas nende silm kaugel Vahemerel seilavaid laevu.

123:5.12 (1363.5) Nazareth was one of the twenty-four priest centers of the Hebrew nation. But the Galilean priesthood was more liberal in the interpretation of the traditional laws than were the Judean scribes and rabbis. And at Nazareth they were also more liberal regarding the observance of the Sabbath. It was therefore the custom for Joseph to take Jesus out for walks on Sabbath afternoons, one of their favorite jaunts being to climb the high hill near their home, from which they could obtain a panoramic view of all Galilee. To the northwest, on clear days, they could see the long ridge of Mount Carmel running down to the sea; and many times Jesus heard his father relate the story of Elijah, one of the first of that long line of Hebrew prophets, who reproved Ahab and exposed the priests of Baal. To the north Mount Hermon raised its snowy peak in majestic splendor and monopolized the skyline, almost 3,000 feet of the upper slopes glistening white with perpetual snow. Far to the east they could discern the Jordan valley and, far beyond, the rocky hills of Moab. Also to the south and the east, when the sun shone upon their marble walls, they could see the Greco-Roman cities of the Decapolis, with their amphitheaters and pretentious temples. And when they lingered toward the going down of the sun, to the west they could make out the sailing vessels on the distant Mediterranean.

Jeesus nägi neljast suunast karavane looklemas Naatsaretti ja linnast välja ning lõuna pool Esdraeloni avarat ja viljakat tasandikku, mis laius Gilboa mäe ja Samaaria poole.

123:5.13 (1364.1) From four directions Jesus could observe the caravan trains as they wended their way in and out of Nazareth, and to the south he could overlook the broad and fertile plain country of Esdraelon, stretching off toward Mount Gilboa and Samaria.

Kui nad ei roninud kõrgemale kauget maastikku vaatama, siis jalutasid nad, jälgides, kuidas loodus aastaaegade vaheldudes oma ilmet muudab. Jeesuse varaseim väljaspool kodu saadud õpetus kätkes aupaklikku ja osavõtlikku suhtumist loodusesse.

123:5.14 (1364.2) When they did not climb the heights to view the distant landscape, they strolled through the countryside and studied nature in her various moods in accordance with the seasons. Jesus’ earliest training, aside from that of the home hearth, had to do with a reverent and sympathetic contact with nature.

Enne kaheksa-aastaseks saamist tundsid Jeesust kõik Naatsareti emad ja noored naised, kes olid teda kohanud ja temaga vestelnud allikal, mis jäi tema kodu lähedusse ning oli üks linna suhtlemis- ja kuulujutukeskusi. Jeesus õppis sel aastal lüpsma pere lehma ja hoolitsema teiste loomade eest. Selle ja järgmise aasta jooksul õppis ta ka juustu valmistama ja kangast kuduma. Kui ta kümneaastaseks sai, oli ta juba oskuslik kuduja. Umbes sel ajal said Jeesus ja naabripoiss Jaakob suurteks sõpradeks pottsepaga, kes voolava allika lähedal tööd tegi. Vaadates Naatani osavaid sõrmi kedral savi voolimas, tegid mõlemad mitmel korral otsuse hakata suurena pottsepaks. Naatan armastas poisse väga ja andis neile sageli mängimiseks savi; ta püüdis nende loovat kujutlusvõimet ergutada, pannes neid mitmesuguste esemete ja loomade voolimises omavahel võistlema.

123:5.15 (1364.3) Before he was eight years of age, he was known to all the mothers and young women of Nazareth, who had met him and talked with him at the spring, which was not far from his home, and which was one of the social centers of contact and gossip for the entire town. This year Jesus learned to milk the family cow and care for the other animals. During this and the following year he also learned to make cheese and to weave. When he was ten years of age, he was an expert loom operator. It was about this time that Jesus and the neighbor boy Jacob became great friends of the potter who worked near the flowing spring; and as they watched Nathan’s deft fingers mold the clay on the potter’s wheel, many times both of them determined to be potters when they grew up. Nathan was very fond of the lads and often gave them clay to play with, seeking to stimulate their creative imaginations by suggesting competitive efforts in modeling various objects and animals.

6. Tema kaheksas eluaasta (2. a pKr)

6. His Eighth Year (A.D. 2)

See oli koolis huvitav aasta. Kuigi Jeesus polnud mingi erakordne õpilane, oli ta usin ja kuulus klassi parima kolmandiku hulka, tehes oma tööd nii hästi, et võis iga kuu üheks nädalaks koju jääda. Ta veetis selle nädala tavaliselt kas oma kalurist onuga Galilea järve kallastel Magdala lähedal või teise onu (ema venna) talus kaheksa kilomeetrit Naatsaretist lõunas.

123:6.1 (1364.4) This was an interesting year at school. Although Jesus was not an unusual student, he was a diligent pupil and belonged to the more progressive third of the class, doing his work so well that he was excused from attendance one week out of each month. This week he usually spent either with his fisherman uncle on the shores of the Sea of Galilee near Magdala or on the farm of another uncle (his mother’s brother) five miles south of Nazareth.

Kuigi ema oli Jeesuse tervise ja turvalisuse pärast liigset ärevust tundma hakanud, leppis ta järk-järgult nende kodust eemal viibimistega. Kõik Jeesuse onud ja tädid armastasid teda väga, mis põhjustas nendevahelise elava konkurentsi, kes saab neil igakuistel külastustel sel ja vahetult järgnevatel aastatel tema seltsis viibida. Esimene nädalane külaskäik onu talusse (pärast seal väikesena viibimist) toimus selle aasta jaanuaris, esimese nädalase kalastamiskogemuse sai Jeesus Galilea järvel maikuus.

123:6.2 (1364.5) Although his mother had become unduly anxious about his health and safety, she gradually became reconciled to these trips away from home. Jesus’ uncles and aunts were all very fond of him, and there ensued a lively competition among them to secure his company for these monthly visits throughout this and immediately subsequent years. His first week’s sojourn on his uncle’s farm (since infancy) was in January of this year; the first week’s fishing experience on the Sea of Galilee occurred in the month of May.

Umbes sel ajal kohtas Jeesus ka Damaskusest pärit matemaatikaõpetajat, ja õppinud temalt mõned uued arvutusmeetodid, tegeles ta mitu aastat üsna palju matemaatikaga. Tal arenes välja hea numbrite, kauguste ja proportsioonide taju.

123:6.3 (1364.6) About this time Jesus met a teacher of mathematics from Damascus, and learning some new techniques of numbers, he spent much time on mathematics for several years. He developed a keen sense of numbers, distances, and proportions.

Jeesus kiindus väga oma venda Jaakobusse ja hakkas selle aasta lõpupoole talle tähestikku õpetama.

123:6.4 (1364.7) Jesus began to enjoy his brother James very much and by the end of this year had begun to teach him the alphabet.

Sel aastal jõudis Jeesus harfiõpetajaga kokkuleppele ja hakkas piimatoodete eest tunde võtma. Tal tekkis erakordne huvi kõige muusikaga seonduva vastu. Hiljem äratas ta ka oma noortes kaaslastes vokaalmuusika vastu huvi. Üheteistkümneaastaselt oli ta juba meisterlik harfimängija ja talle meeldis väga pereliikmetele ning tuttavatele oma erakordseid tõlgendusi ja andekaid improvisatsioone esitada.

123:6.5 (1364.8) This year Jesus made arrangements to exchange dairy products for lessons on the harp. He had an unusual liking for everything musical. Later on he did much to promote an interest in vocal music among his youthful associates. By the time he was eleven years of age, he was a skillful harpist and greatly enjoyed entertaining both family and friends with his extraordinary interpretations and able improvisations.

Kuigi Jeesus jõudis koolis endiselt kadestamisväärselt edasi, ei läinud tema vanematel ja õpetajatel kõik alati ladusalt. Poiss esitas järjekindlalt nii teaduse kui ka religiooni, eriti geograafia ja astronoomia, kohta palju kimbatust tekitavaid küsimusi. Iseäranis huvitas teda, miks Palestiinas vahelduvad kuiv ja vihmane aastaaeg. Ta otsis korduvalt seletust Naatsareti ja Jordani oru suurtele temperatuurivahedele. Ta küsis neid arukaid, kuid kimbatust tekitavaid küsimusi lausa lakkamatult.

123:6.6 (1365.1) While Jesus continued to make enviable progress at school, all did not run smoothly for either parents or teachers. He persisted in asking many embarrassing questions concerning both science and religion, particularly regarding geography and astronomy. He was especially insistent on finding out why there was a dry season and a rainy season in Palestine. Repeatedly he sought the explanation for the great difference between the temperatures of Nazareth and the Jordan valley. He simply never ceased to ask such intelligent but perplexing questions.

Tema kolmas vend Siimon sündis sel aastal, 2. a pKr reede, 14. aprilli õhtul.

123:6.7 (1365.2) His third brother, Simon, was born on Friday evening, April 14, of this year, A.D. 2.

Veebruaris tuli Naahor, üks Jeruusalemma rabide akadeemia õpetajaid Naatsaretti Jeesust vaatama, olles enne käinud sama ülesandega Sakariase kodus Jeruusalemma lähedal. Ta saabus Naatsaretti Johannese isa soovitusel. Jeesuse aval ja ebatraditsiooniline suhtumine usuküsimustesse šokeeris teda algul mõnevõrra, kuid ta pidas selle põhjuseks Galilea kaugust heebrea haridus- ja kultuurikeskustest ning soovitas Joosepil ja Maarjal lubada Jeesusel temaga Jeruusalemma tulla, kus ta võiks juudi kultuuri keskuse haridus- ja koolitusvõimalusi kasutada. Maarja oli juba pooleldi nõus, olles veendunud, et ta vanimast pojast saab messias, juutide vabastaja. Joosep aga kõhkles; ta oli küll niisama kindel, et Jeesusest saab ettemääratud saatusega inimene, kuid tal polnud kindlat veendumust, missugune see ettemääratus on. Ta ei kahelnud aga kunagi päriselt selles, et ta pojal on maa peal mingi suur missioon täita. Mida enam ta Naahori soovituse peale mõtles, seda enam kahtles ta, kas Jeesuse Jeruusalemma minek oleks tark tegu.

123:6.8 (1365.3) In February, Nahor, one of the teachers in a Jerusalem academy of the rabbis, came to Nazareth to observe Jesus, having been on a similar mission to Zacharias’s home near Jerusalem. He came to Nazareth at the instigation of John’s father. While at first he was somewhat shocked by Jesus’ frankness and unconventional manner of relating himself to things religious, he attributed it to the remoteness of Galilee from the centers of Hebrew learning and culture and advised Joseph and Mary to allow him to take Jesus back with him to Jerusalem, where he could have the advantages of education and training at the center of Jewish culture. Mary was half persuaded to consent; she was convinced her eldest son was to become the Messiah, the Jewish deliverer; Joseph hesitated; he was equally persuaded that Jesus was to grow up to become a man of destiny, but what that destiny would prove to be he was profoundly uncertain. But he never really doubted that his son was to fulfill some great mission on earth. The more he thought about Nahor’s advice, the more he questioned the wisdom of the proposed sojourn in Jerusalem.

Et Joosep ja Maarja jäid selles küsimuses lahkarvamusele, küsis Naahor neilt luba anda asi Jeesuse enda otsustada. Jeesus kuulas tähelepanelikult, rääkis Joosepi, Maarja ja müürsepast naabri Jaakobiga, kelle poeg oli tema lemmik-mängukaaslane, ning teatas siis kahe päeva pärast, et kuna ta vanemate ja nõuandjate arvamused lahknevad ja et ta ei söanda nii tähtsa otsuse eest vastutust enda peale võtta, eelistamata kindlalt ei üht ega teist varianti, oli ta teinud olukorda tervikuna arvesse võttes lõpuks otsuse „rääkida oma taevase Isaga”. Kuna ta polnud vastuses täiesti kindel, tundis ta, et peab jääma pigem koju „oma ema ja isa juurde”, lisades, et „nad armastavad mind nii väga ja suudavad kindlasti teha minu heaks rohkem ning suunata mind turvalisemalt kui võõrad, kes võivad ainult vaadata mu keha ja jälgida minu meelt, kuid vaevalt mind tõeliselt tunda.” Kõik imestasid tema sõnu ja Naahor läks oma teed, Jeruusalemma tagasi. Uuesti tuli Jeesuse kodust lahkumine kaalumisele alles palju aastaid hiljem.

123:6.9 (1365.4) Because of this difference of opinion between Joseph and Mary, Nahor requested permission to lay the whole matter before Jesus. Jesus listened attentively, talked with Joseph, Mary, and a neighbor, Jacob the stone mason, whose son was his favorite playmate, and then, two days later, reported that since there was such a difference of opinion among his parents and advisers, and since he did not feel competent to assume the responsibility for such a decision, not feeling strongly one way or the other, in view of the whole situation, he had finally decided to “talk with my Father who is in heaven”; and while he was not perfectly sure about the answer, he rather felt he should remain at home “with my father and mother,” adding, “they who love me so much should be able to do more for me and guide me more safely than strangers who can only view my body and observe my mind but can hardly truly know me.” They all marveled, and Nahor went his way, back to Jerusalem. And it was many years before the subject of Jesus’ going away from home again came up for consideration.





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