URANTIA RAAMAT - 88. Kiri. Fetišid, amuletid ja maagia

(UF-EST-001-2010-1)

URANTIA RAAMAT   

III OSA: Urantia Ajalugu



88. Kiri. Fetišid, amuletid ja maagia

Paper 88 : Fetishes, Charms, and Magic

USKUMUS, et vaim võib minna elutu asja, looma või inimese sisse, on väga iidne ja auväärne, olles valitsenud juba religiooni evolutsiooni algusest saadik. See õpetus seestumusest ei ole midagi muud kui fetišism. Ürginimene ei tarvitse tingimata fetišit kummardada; ta palveldab ja austab väga loogiliselt vaimu, kes selles elab.

88:0.1 (967.1) THE concept of a spirit’s entering into an inanimate object, an animal, or a human being, is a very ancient and honorable belief, having prevailed since the beginning of the evolution of religion. This doctrine of spirit possession is nothing more nor less than fetishism. The savage does not necessarily worship the fetish; he very logically worships and reverences the spirit resident therein.

Fetiši vaimu peeti algul mõne surnu hingeks; hiljem arvati, et fetišites elavad kõrgemad vaimud. Nii hõlmaski fetišism lõpuks kõiki primitiivseid ideid tontidest, hingedest, vaimudest ja deemoni võimusesse sattumistest.

88:0.2 (967.2) At first, the spirit of a fetish was believed to be the ghost of a dead man; later on, the higher spirits were supposed to reside in fetishes. And so the fetish cult eventually incorporated all of the primitive ideas of ghosts, souls, spirits, and demon possession.

1. Usk fetišitesse

1. Belief in Fetishes

Ürginimene soovis alati kõike erakordset fetišiks muuta, seetõttu tekkis neid juhuste tahtel päris palju. Inimene on haige, midagi toimub ja ta terveneb. Nii õpiti tundma ka paljusid ravimeid ja juhuslikult avastatud ravimisviise. Samuti kalduti fetišiks pidama unenägudega seotud objekte. Fetišiteks said vulkaanid, aga mitte mäed; komeedid, aga mitte tähed. Varane inimene arvas, et lendtähed ja meteoriidid näitavad eriliste vaimude küllasaabumist maakerale.

88:1.1 (967.3) Primitive man always wanted to make anything extraordinary into a fetish; chance therefore gave origin to many. A man is sick, something happens, and he gets well. The same thing is true of the reputation of many medicines and the chance methods of treating disease. Objects connected with dreams were likely to be converted into fetishes. Volcanoes, but not mountains, became fetishes; comets, but not stars. Early man regarded shooting stars and meteors as indicating the arrival on earth of special visiting spirits.

Esimesed fetišid olid iseäralike märkidega kivikesed ja sellest ajast saadik on inimene otsinud „pühasid kive”; pärlikee oli kunagi pühade kivide kogum, amulettide komplekt. Paljudel hõimudel olid kivifetišid, kuid vähesed neist on säilinud, näiteks Kaaba ja Scone'i kivi. Ka tuli ja vesi kuulusid varajaste fetišite hulka ning tulekummardamine ja usk pühasse vette püsib ikka veel.

88:1.2 (967.4) The first fetishes were peculiarly marked pebbles, and “sacred stones” have ever since been sought by man; a string of beads was once a collection of sacred stones, a battery of charms. Many tribes had fetish stones, but few have survived as have the Kaaba and the Stone of Scone. Fire and water were also among the early fetishes, and fire worship, together with belief in holy water, still survives.

Puude kujunemine fetišiteks oli hilisem areng, kuid mõnes hõimus viis jätkuv looduse kummardamise uskumuseni, et amulettides elab mingi loodusvaim. Kui fetišiteks said taimed ja puuviljad, muutus nende söömine tabuks. Õun oli üks esimesi vilju, mis sellesse kategooriasse sattus; Vahemere idaranniku rahvad ei söönud õunu kunagi.

88:1.3 (967.5) Tree fetishes were a later development, but among some tribes the persistence of nature worship led to belief in charms indwelt by some sort of nature spirit. When plants and fruits became fetishes, they were taboo as food. The apple was among the first to fall into this category; it was never eaten by the Levantine peoples.

Kui loom sõi inimliha, sai temast fetiš. Nii muutus koer parside pühaks loomaks. Kui fetišiks on loom ja surnu hing pesitseb temas alaliselt, siis võib fetišism riivata taaskehastumisõpetust. Ürginimesed kadestasid loomi mitmel põhjusel; nad ei pidanud ennast neist paremaks ja sageli said oma lemmiklooma järgi nime.

88:1.4 (967.6) If an animal ate human flesh, it became a fetish. In this way the dog came to be the sacred animal of the Parsees. If the fetish is an animal and the ghost is permanently resident therein, then fetishism may impinge on reincarnation. In many ways the savages envied the animals; they did not feel superior to them and were often named after their favorite beasts.

Kui loomad fetišiteks said, tekkisid peagi fetiš-looma liha söömist keelavad tabud. Ahvid said tänu sarnasusele inimesega varakult fetišiteks, hiljem hakati samamoodi suhtuma madudesse, lindudesse ja sigadesse. Kunagi oli fetišiks ka lehm, tema piim oli tabu, kuid ekskremente hinnati kõrgelt. Palestiinas austati hardalt madusid, eriti foiniiklaste seas, kes koos juutidega pidasid madu kurjade vaimude suuvoodriks. Ka paljud nüüdisaegsed inimesed usuvad, et roomajatel on võluvõim. Madu on austatud Araabiast Indiani ja punaste inimeste moqui hõimu maotantsuni.

88:1.5 (967.7) When animals became fetishes, there ensued the taboos on eating the flesh of the fetish animal. Apes and monkeys, because of resemblance to man, early became fetish animals; later, snakes, birds, and swine were also similarly regarded. At one time the cow was a fetish, the milk being taboo while the excreta were highly esteemed. The serpent was revered in Palestine, especially by the Phoenicians, who, along with the Jews, considered it to be the mouthpiece of evil spirits. Even many moderns believe in the charm powers of reptiles. From Arabia on through India to the snake dance of the Moqui tribe of red men the serpent has been revered.

Teatavaid nädalapäevi fetišeeriti. Reedet on peetud ajastuid ebasoodsaks päevaks ja arvu kolmteist õnnetusttoovaks numbriks. Õnnenumbrid kolm ja seitse pärinevad hilisematest ilmutustest, ürginimesele oli õnnenumber neli, mis tulenes nelja ilmakaare varasest äratundmisest. Kariloomade või muu omandi loendamine tõi arvatavalt õnnetust, vanaaja inimestele oli rahvaloendus, „rahva lugemine”, alati vastumeelt.

88:1.6 (968.1) Certain days of the week were fetishes. For ages Friday has been regarded as an unlucky day and the number thirteen as an evil numeral. The lucky numbers three and seven came from later revelations; four was the lucky number of primitive man and was derived from the early recognition of the four points of the compass. It was held unlucky to count cattle or other possessions; the ancients always opposed the taking of a census, “numbering the people.”

Ürginimene ei fetišeerinud liigselt seksuaalelu, paljunemisfunktsioonile pöörati tähelepanu vaid mõõdukalt. Ürginimene suhtus sellesse loomulikult, mitte nilbelt ega himuralt.

88:1.7 (968.2) Primitive man did not make an undue fetish out of sex; the reproductive function received only a limited amount of attention. The savage was natural minded, not obscene or prurient.

Vägevaks fetišiks peeti sülge, inimese peale sülitades sai temast paharette välja ajada. Kui kellegi peale sülitas temast vanem või kõrgem, peeti seda suurimaks komplimendiks. Inimese kehaosad olid samuti potentsiaalsed fetišid, eriti juuksed ja küüned. Pealikute pikaks kasvatatud sõrmeküüsi hinnati kõrgelt ja nende äralõigatud küüned olid vägevad fetišid. Uskumus kolpadesse kui fetišitesse viis hilisemale peajahile. Väga hinnatud fetiš oli nabanöör, Aafrikas on see seda praegugi. Inimkonna esimene mängukann oli allesjäetud nabanöör. Sageli kaunistati seda pärlitega ja sellest sai inimese esimene kaelakee.

88:1.8 (968.3) Saliva was a potent fetish; devils could be driven out by spitting on a person. For an elder or superior to spit on one was the highest compliment. Parts of the human body were looked upon as potential fetishes, particularly the hair and nails. The long-growing fingernails of the chiefs were highly prized, and the trimmings thereof were a powerful fetish. Belief in skull fetishes accounts for much of later-day head-hunting. The umbilical cord was a highly prized fetish; even today it is so regarded in Africa. Mankind’s first toy was a preserved umbilical cord. Set with pearls, as was often done, it was man’s first necklace.

Küürakat või vigast last fetišeeriti, kuutõbise kohta arvati, et Kuu on tema pea vallanud. Ürginimene ei suutnud eristada geniaalsust hullumeelsusest, idioodid kas peksti surnuks või tõsteti ebajumalatena ausse. Hüsteeria kinnitas üha enam üldlevinud usku nõidusesse, epileptikud olid sageli preestrid ja ravitsejad. Joobnud inimesed arvati olevat vaimust vallatud; kui ürginimene hakkas pummeldama, pani ta juustesse lehe, et vabaneda vastutusest oma tegude eest. Mürgid ja joovastavad ained said fetišiteks, sest arvati, et need on vaimust vallatud.

88:1.9 (968.4) Hunchbacked and crippled children were regarded as fetishes; lunatics were believed to be moon-struck. Primitive man could not distinguish between genius and insanity; idiots were either beaten to death or revered as fetish personalities. Hysteria increasingly confirmed the popular belief in witchcraft; epileptics often were priests and medicine men. Drunkenness was looked upon as a form of spirit possession; when a savage went on a spree, he put a leaf in his hair for the purpose of disavowing responsibility for his acts. Poisons and intoxicants became fetishes; they were deemed to be possessed.

Geeniusi peeti sageli targast vaimust vallatud ebajumalateks-inimesteks. Need andekad inimesed õppisid peagi omakasupüüdlikult pettusi ja trikke kasutama. Ebajumal-inimene arvati olevat midagi enamat kui inimene, teda peeti jumalikuks, isegi eksimatuks. Nii omandasid pealikud, kuningad, preestrid, prohvetid ja kirikujuhid lõpuks suure ja piiramatu võimu.

88:1.10 (968.5) Many people looked upon geniuses as fetish personalities possessed by a wise spirit. And these talented humans soon learned to resort to fraud and trickery for the advancement of their selfish interests. A fetish man was thought to be more than human; he was divine, even infallible. Thus did chiefs, kings, priests, prophets, and church rulers eventually wield great power and exercise unbounded authority.

2. Fetiši areng

2. Evolution of the Fetish

Oletati, et hinged eelistavad elada mingis esemes, mis oli neile eluajal kuulunud. Selle uskumusega on seletatav paljude nüüdisaegsete reliikviate mõjusus. Vanaaja inimesed austasid alati oma juhtide luid ning ka praegu suhtuvad paljud pühakute ja kangelaste skeletijäänustesse ebauskliku aukartusega. Tähtsate inimeste haudade juurde korraldatakse tänapäevalgi palverännakuid.

88:2.1 (968.6) It was a supposed preference of ghosts to indwell some object which had belonged to them when alive in the flesh. This belief explains the efficacy of many modern relics. The ancients always revered the bones of their leaders, and the skeletal remains of saints and heroes are still regarded with superstitious awe by many. Even today, pilgrimages are made to the tombs of great men.

Uskumus reliikviatesse on kasvanud välja iidsest fetišismist. Nüüdisaegsete religioonide reliikviad kujutavad endast püüet ürginimeste fetišismi mõistuspäraseks muuta ja selliselt nüüdisaegsetes ususüsteemides väärikale ja lugupeetavale kohale tõsta. Fetišitesse ja maagiasse uskuda on paganlik, kuid reliikviate ja imede aktsepteerimist peetakse täiesti normaalseks.

88:2.2 (968.7) Belief in relics is an outgrowth of the ancient fetish cult. The relics of modern religions represent an attempt to rationalize the fetish of the savage and thus elevate it to a place of dignity and respectability in the modern religious systems. It is heathenish to believe in fetishes and magic but supposedly all right to accept relics and miracles.

Koldest, tuleasemest, sai peaaegu fetiš, püha paik. Pühamud ja templid olid algul fetišikummardamise paigad, sest sinna maeti surnuid. Mooses ülendas heebrealaste fetišikummardamisonni paigaks, kus asetses ülifetiš, tolleaegne ettekujutus Jumala seadusest. Iisraellased ei loobunud aga kunagi oma iseäralikust kaananlikust usust kivialtarisse: „Ja see kivi, mille ma panin sambaks, saab Jumala kojaks.” Nad uskusid tõepoolest, et neis kivialtarites, mis tegelikult olid fetišid, elab nende Jumala vaim.

88:2.3 (969.1) The hearth — fireplace — became more or less of a fetish, a sacred spot. The shrines and temples were at first fetish places because the dead were buried there. The fetish hut of the Hebrews was elevated by Moses to that place where it harbored a superfetish, the then existent concept of the law of God. But the Israelites never gave up the peculiar Canaanite belief in the stone altar: “And this stone which I have set up as a pillar shall be God’s house.” They truly believed that the spirit of their God dwelt in such stone altars, which were in reality fetishes.

Kujusid tehti algul selleks, et jäädvustada kuulsate surnute välimust ja mälestust, need olid tegelikult monumendid. Iidolid olid fetišismi edasiarendus. Ürginimesed arvasid, et pühitsemistseremoonia mõjutab vaimu kujusse sisenema, kui teatavaid esemeid õnnistati, said needki amulettideks.

88:2.4 (969.2) The earliest images were made to preserve the appearance and memory of the illustrious dead; they were really monuments. Idols were a refinement of fetishism. The primitives believed that a ceremony of consecration caused the spirit to enter the image; likewise, when certain objects were blessed, they became charms.

Dalamatia iidsele moraalikoodeksile teise käsu lisamisega püüdis Mooses fetišite kummardamist heebrealaste seas ohjeldada. Ta õpetas ettevaatlikult, et nad ei tohi teha mingeid kujusid ega pilte, mida võidaks fetišiks pühitseda. Ta ütles selgelt: „Sa ei tohi enesele teha ebajumalakuju ega -pilti sellest, mis on ülal taevas, ega sellest, mis on all maa peal, ega sellest, mis on maa all vees”. Kuigi see käsk aeglustas juutide seas tunduvalt kunsti arengut, vähendas see tõepoolest fetiši kummardamist. Ent Mooses oli liiga tark, et püüda muistseid fetišeid välja tõrjuda, ning nõustus seetõttu mõningate reliikviate paigutamisega käsulaudade kõrvale seaduselaekasse, mis oli ühtaegu sõjaaltar ja usupühamu.

88:2.5 (969.3) Moses, in the addition of the second commandment to the ancient Dalamatian moral code, made an effort to control fetish worship among the Hebrews. He carefully directed that they should make no sort of image that might become consecrated as a fetish. He made it plain, “You shall not make a graven image or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or on the earth beneath, or in the waters of the earth.” While this commandment did much to retard art among the Jews, it did lessen fetish worship. But Moses was too wise to attempt suddenly to displace the olden fetishes, and he therefore consented to the putting of certain relics alongside the law in the combined war altar and religious shrine which was the ark.

Lõpuks said ka sõnad fetišiks, eriti need, mida peeti Jumala sõnadeks; nii on paljude usundite pühad raamatud muutunud inimese vaimse kujutlusvõime fetišistlikeks vanglateks. Moosese püüd fetišite vastu astuda sai ise ülimaks fetišiks, tema käsuseadusi kasutati hiljem kunsti piiramiseks ning ilu nautimise ja kummardamise takistamiseks.

88:2.6 (969.4) Words eventually became fetishes, more especially those which were regarded as God’s words; in this way the sacred books of many religions have become fetishistic prisons incarcerating the spiritual imagination of man. Moses’ very effort against fetishes became a supreme fetish; his commandment was later used to stultify art and to retard the enjoyment and adoration of the beautiful.

Muistsel ajal oli mõjuvõimsaks fetišiks hirmutekitav sõna doktriin, kohutavaim kõigist inimest orjastanud türannidest. Fetišiks kujunenud doktriin sunnib surelikku inimest vagatsemise, fanatismi, ebausu, sallimatuse ja kõige jõledamate barbaarsete julmuste haardesse. Nüüdisaegne tarkusest ja tõest lugupidamine on alles hiljaaegu pääsenud kalduvusest seada fetišeid mõtlemise ja arutlemise kõrgematele tasemetele. Mis puutub arvukatesse fetišiks muutunud kirjutistesse, mida erinevate uskude pooldajad peavad pühadeks raamatuteks, siis ei usuta ainult seda, et kõik neis raamatutes on tõsi, vaid ka seda, et raamatus sisaldub kogu tõde. Kui mõni püha raamat räägib juhtumisi, et maakera on lame, siis keelduvad muidu terve mõistusega mehed ja naised pikkade inimpõlvede vältel aktsepteerimast kind-laid tõendeid selle kohta, et planeet on ümmargune.

88:2.7 (969.5) In olden times the fetish word of authority was a fear-inspiring doctrine, the most terrible of all tyrants which enslave men. A doctrinal fetish will lead mortal man to betray himself into the clutches of bigotry, fanaticism, superstition, intolerance, and the most atrocious of barbarous cruelties. Modern respect for wisdom and truth is but the recent escape from the fetish-making tendency up to the higher levels of thinking and reasoning. Concerning the accumulated fetish writings which various religionists hold as sacred books, it is not only believed that what is in the book is true, but also that every truth is contained in the book. If one of these sacred books happens to speak of the earth as being flat, then, for long generations, otherwise sane men and women will refuse to accept positive evidence that the planet is round.

Tava avada mõni niisugune püha raamat, et pilk satuks juhuslikult mõnele lõigule, mis annaks juhiseid tähtsateks elulisteks otsusteks või ettevõtmisteks, ei ole midagi muud kui ilmne fetišism. „Püha raamatu” peal vande andmine või millegi eriti austusväärse nimel tõotamine on üks rafineeritud fetišismi vorme.

88:2.8 (969.6) The practice of opening one of these sacred books to let the eye chance upon a passage, the following of which may determine important life decisions or projects, is nothing more nor less than arrant fetishism. To take an oath on a “holy book” or to swear by some object of supreme veneration is a form of refined fetishism.

Ent kui fetišlik hirm ürginimesepealiku äralõigatud küünte ees asendus jumaldava austusega suurepärase kirjade, seaduste, legendide, allegooriate, müütide, luuletuste ja kroonikate kogumiku ees, oli see tõeline edusamm; kajastavad ju need paljude sajandite jooksul väljasõelutud moraali ja elutarkust, vähemalt nende koondamiseni „pühaks raamatuks”.

88:2.9 (969.7) But it does represent real evolutionary progress to advance from the fetish fear of a savage chief’s fingernail trimmings to the adoration of a superb collection of letters, laws, legends, allegories, myths, poems, and chronicles which, after all, reflect the winnowed moral wisdom of many centuries, at least up to the time and event of their being assembled as a “sacred book.”

Selleks, et sõnad saaksid fetišiks, tuli neid pidada ilmutusteks; oletatavalt jumalusest inspireeritud kirjutistele toetumine viis otseselt kiriku võimu tekkimiseni, nagu ilmalike vormelite areng viis riigi võimu teostumiseni.

88:2.10 (970.1) To become fetishes, words had to be considered inspired, and the invocation of supposed divinely inspired writings led directly to the establishment of the authority of the church, while the evolution of civil forms led to the fruition of the authority of the state.

3. Totemism

3. Totemism

Fetišismi esines kõigis ürgsetes kultustes varaseimast uskumusest pühadesse kividesse, ebajumalate palveldamisest, kannibalismist ja looduse kummardamisest kuni totemismini.

88:3.1 (970.2) Fetishism ran through all the primitive cults from the earliest belief in sacred stones, through idolatry, cannibalism, and nature worship, to totemism.

Totemismis on ühendatud sotsiaalsed ja usulised tavad. Algselt arvati, et oletatavat bioloogilist päritolu tootemlooma austamine kindlustab toiduvarude jätkumise. Tootemid olid ühtaegu nii rühma kui ka rühma jumala sümbolid. Niisugune jumal oli isikustatud sugukond. Totemism oli püüd muidu isiklikku religiooni ühiskonnastada. Tootem arenes lõppkokkuvõttes nüüdisaegsete rahvaste lipuks või riigi sümboliks.

88:3.2 (970.3) Totemism is a combination of social and religious observances. Originally it was thought that respect for the totem animal of supposed biologic origin insured the food supply. Totems were at one and the same time symbols of the group and their god. Such a god was the clan personified. Totemism was one phase of the attempted socialization of otherwise personal religion. The totem eventually evolved into the flag, or national symbol, of the various modern peoples.

Üks fetišiks peetud ese oli ravimikott, paun, mis sisaldas surnuhingedest läbiimbunud hea mõjuga esemeid, ja vanaaja ravitseja ei lasknud oma kotil, oma võimu sümbolil, maad puudutada. Kahekümnenda sajandi tsiviliseeritud rahvad jälgivad hoolikalt, et nende lipud, rahvusliku eneseteadvuse võrdkujud samuti kunagi maad ei puudutaks.

88:3.3 (970.4) A fetish bag, a medicine bag, was a pouch containing a reputable assortment of ghost-impregnated articles, and the medicine man of old never allowed his bag, the symbol of his power, to touch the ground. Civilized peoples in the twentieth century see to it that their flags, emblems of national consciousness, likewise never touch the ground.

Preestri- ja kuningaameti tunnused on tegelikult fetišid ja riigi kõrgeim fetiš on läbinud palju arenguastmeid alates sugukondadest kuni hõimudeni, kõrgemast feodaalvõimust suveräänsuseni, tootemitest lippudeni. Ebajumalad-kuningad on valitsenud „jumaliku õigusega”, samuti on tekkinud palju muid valitsemisvorme. Inimesed on teinud ebajumala ka demokraatiast, mis ülistab ja jumaldab tavainimese mõtteid, mida üheskoos nimetatakse „avalikuks arvamuseks”. Üksikisiku arvamust ei peeta iseenesest eriti väärtuslikuks, ent kui palju inimesi funktsioneerib koos demokraatiana, peetakse sedasama keskpärast arvamust õiglaseks vahekohtunikuks ja õigluse normiks.

88:3.4 (970.5) The insignia of priestly and kingly office were eventually regarded as fetishes, and the fetish of the state supreme has passed through many stages of development, from clans to tribes, from suzerainty to sovereignty, from totems to flags. Fetish kings have ruled by “divine right,” and many other forms of government have obtained. Men have also made a fetish of democracy, the exaltation and adoration of the common man’s ideas when collectively called “public opinion.” One man’s opinion, when taken by itself, is not regarded as worth much, but when many men are collectively functioning as a democracy, this same mediocre judgment is held to be the arbiter of justice and the standard of righteousness.

4. Maagia

4. Magic

Tsiviliseeritud inimene ründab reaalse keskkonna probleeme teaduse abil, ürginimene püüdis lahendada illusoorse tontliku keskkonna reaalseid probleeme maagiaga. Maagia oli tehnika, mis võimaldas manipuleerida väljamõeldud vaimukeskkonnaga, mille riugastega sai lõputult seletada kõike seletamatut. See oli kunst saavutada vaimude vabatahtlik koostöö ja sundida vaime fetišite või teiste, võimsamate vaimude abil vastu tahtmist koostööd tegema.

88:4.1 (970.6) Civilized man attacks the problems of a real environment through his science; savage man attempted to solve the real problems of an illusory ghost environment by magic. Magic was the technique of manipulating the conjectured spirit environment whose machinations endlessly explained the inexplicable; it was the art of obtaining voluntary spirit co-operation and of coercing involuntary spirit aid through the use of fetishes or other and more powerful spirits.

Maagial, nõidumisel ja nekromantial oli kaks eesmärki:

88:4.2 (970.7) The object of magic, sorcery, and necromancy was twofold:

1. näha ette tulevikku;

88:4.3 (970.8) 1. To secure insight into the future.

2. mõjutada soodsalt oma keskkonda.

88:4.4 (970.9) 2. Favorably to influence environment.

Teadusel on samad eesmärgid mis maagial. Inimkond on liikumas maagialt teaduse suunas mitte mõtiskluste ja mõistuse, vaid pigem pikaajaliste kogemuste kaudu, järk-järgult ja valulikult. Inimene on aste-astmelt selg ees tõesse astumas, alustades eksimusest, liikudes selles edasi ja jõudes lõpuks tõe lävele. Alles teadusliku metoodika kujunedes on ta pilgu ettepoole pööranud. Ent ürginimene pidi kas katsetama või hukkuma.

88:4.5 (970.10) The objects of science are identical with those of magic. Mankind is progressing from magic to science, not by meditation and reason, but rather through long experience, gradually and painfully. Man is gradually backing into the truth, beginning in error, progressing in error, and finally attaining the threshold of truth. Only with the arrival of the scientific method has he faced forward. But primitive man had to experiment or perish.

Varane ebausklik põnevus oli hilisema teadusliku uudishimu ema. Selles ürgses ebausus oli edasiviiv dünaamiline emotsioon — hirmuga segatud uudishimu; muistses maagias oli edasiviivat jõudu. Ebausk näitas, et inimesel tekkis soov planeedi keskkonda tunda ja juhtida.

88:4.6 (970.11) The fascination of early superstition was the mother of the later scientific curiosity. There was progressive dynamic emotion — fear plus curiosity — in these primitive superstitions; there was progressive driving power in the olden magic. These superstitions represented the emergence of the human desire to know and to control planetary environment.

Maagia haaras ürginimese nii tugevasti oma võimusesse, et ta ei suutnud loomulikust surmast aru saada. Hilisem pärispatu idee aitas maagia võimu rahva üle suuresti vähendada, sest andis seletuse loomulikule surmale. Kunagi polnud sugugi tavatu, et kümme süütut inimest tapeti, sest neid kahtlustati ühe inimese loomuliku surma põhjustamises. See on üks põhjus, miks vanaajal rahvaarv kiiremini ei kasvanud, ja kehtib ka praegu mõne Aafrika hõimu puhul. Süüdistatav isik tunnistas oma süü tavaliselt üles, kuigi see tähendas talle surma.

88:4.7 (971.1) Magic gained such a strong hold upon the savage because he could not grasp the concept of natural death. The later idea of original sin helped much to weaken the grip of magic on the race in that it accounted for natural death. It was at one time not at all uncommon for ten innocent persons to be put to death because of supposed responsibility for one natural death. This is one reason why ancient peoples did not increase faster, and it is still true of some African tribes. The accused individual usually confessed guilt, even when facing death.

Maagia tundub ürginimesele loomulik. Ta usub, et vaenlase saab tegelikult tappa temalt lõigatud juuste või küüntega nõidumisega. Ka maohammustused arvati olevat surmavad vaid nõia maagia tõttu. Maagiaga on raske võidelda just seetõttu, et ka hirm võib tappa. Ürginimesed kartsid maagiat nii väga, et see tegelikult tappiski, ja nendest tulemustest piisas eksliku uskumuse põhjendamiseks. Ebaõnnestumise korral leiti alati mingi usutav seletus, kahjustava maagia vastu astuti uue maagiaga.

88:4.8 (971.2) Magic is natural to a savage. He believes that an enemy can actually be killed by practicing sorcery on his shingled hair or fingernail trimmings. The fatality of snake bites was attributed to the magic of the sorcerer. The difficulty in combating magic arises from the fact that fear can kill. Primitive peoples so feared magic that it did actually kill, and such results were sufficient to substantiate this erroneous belief. In case of failure there was always some plausible explanation; the cure for defective magic was more magic.

5. Maagilised amuletid

5. Magical Charms

Kuna kõik kehaga seonduv võis feti iks saada, oli varaseim maagia seotud juuste ja küüntega. Keha jääkidega kaasnev salatsemine kasvas välja kartusest, et vaenlane võib midagi keha küljest võetut oma valdusesse saada ja pahatahtlikus maagias ära kasutada, seetõttu maeti kõik kehast eemaldatu hoolikalt. Avalikus kohas sülitamisest hoiduti kartuses, et sülge võidakse kasutada kahjustavaks nõiduseks; sülg korjati alati kokku. Isegi toidujäänused, rõivad ja ehted võisid saada maagilisteks vahenditeks. Ürginimene ei jätnud kunagi oma toidujäänuseid lauale. Kõike seda tehti hirmust, et vaenlased võivad neid asju oma maagilistes riitustes kasutada, mitte nende teguviiside hügieenilisuse tõttu.

88:5.1 (971.3) Since anything connected with the body could become a fetish, the earliest magic had to do with hair and nails. Secrecy attendant upon body elimination grew up out of fear that an enemy might get possession of something derived from the body and employ it in detrimental magic; all excreta of the body were therefore carefully buried. Public spitting was refrained from because of the fear that saliva would be used in deleterious magic; spittle was always covered. Even food remnants, clothing, and ornaments could become instruments of magic. The savage never left any remnants of his meal on the table. And all this was done through fear that one’s enemies might use these things in magical rites, not from any appreciation of the hygienic value of such practices.

Maagilisi amulette valmistati väga erinevast materjalist: inimese lihast, tiigriküünistest, krokodillihammastest, mürgiste taimede seemnetest, maomürgist ja inimjuustest. Väga maagilised olid surnute luud. Nõidumiseks võis kasutada isegi jalajälgedest võetud tolmu. Vanaaja inimesed uskusid väga armuamulette. Armastust võis maagia abil kindlustada, kasutades verd ja muid keha eritisi.

88:5.2 (971.4) Magical charms were concocted from a great variety of things: human flesh, tiger claws, crocodile teeth, poison plant seeds, snake venom, and human hair. The bones of the dead were very magical. Even the dust from footprints could be used in magic. The ancients were great believers in love charms. Blood and other forms of bodily secretions were able to insure the magic influence of love.

Tõhusateks nõidumisvahenditeks peeti inimkujutisi. Kujusid meisterdati usus, et samamoodi, kuidas sa neid kohtled, kas hästi või halvasti, läheb ka kujutatud inimesel endal. Oste tehes mälusid ebausklikud inimesed kõva puutükki, et müüja südant pehmendada.

88:5.3 (971.5) Images were supposed to be effective in magic. Effigies were made, and when treated ill or well, the same effects were believed to rest upon the real person. When making purchases, superstitious persons would chew a bit of hard wood in order to soften the heart of the seller.

Väga suur võluvõim oli musta lehma piimal, samuti mustadel kassidel. Ameti- või võimukepp oli maagiline, samuti trummid, kellukesed ja sõlmed. Kõik vanaaja esemed olid maagilised amuletid. Uue või kõrgema tsivilisatsiooni saavutustesse suhtuti halvakspanuga, sest oletati, et neil on kuri võluvõim. Nii suhtuti kaua aega kirja- ja trükikunsti ning piltidesse.

88:5.4 (971.6) The milk of a black cow was highly magical; so also were black cats. The staff or wand was magical, along with drums, bells, and knots. All ancient objects were magical charms. The practices of a new or higher civilization were looked upon with disfavor because of their supposedly evil magical nature. Writing, printing, and pictures were long so regarded.

Ürginimene uskus, et nimedesse, eriti jumalate nimedesse tuleb suhtuda austusega. Nime peeti omaette olemusvormiks, füüsilisest isiksusest eraldiseisvaks mõjuks, mida hinnati võrdseks hinge ja varjuga. Nime anti laenu tagatiseks: inimene sai oma nime uuesti kasutada alles siis, kui oli selle laenu tagastamisega välja lunastanud. Tänapäeval antakse võlakirjale allkiri. Inimese nimi sai maagias peagi tähtsaks. Ürginimesel oli kaks nime, kuna tähtsat nime peeti liiga pühaks, et seda tavalistel puhkudel kasutada, oli ka teine ehk igapäevane nimi — hüüdnimi. Oma pärisnime ei öeldud võõrastele kunagi. Ebatavalised kogemused sundisid inimest oma nime muutma, mõnikord püüti sel teel haigust ravida või halba õnne peatada. Ürginimene võis osta uue nime hõimujuhilt, ka praegu investeeritakse tiitlitesse ja kraadidesse. Ent kõige ürgsemates hõimudes, näiteks Aafrika bušmanite seas, igal inimesel oma nime ei olegi.

88:5.5 (971.7) Primitive man believed that names must be treated with respect, especially names of the gods. The name was regarded as an entity, an influence distinct from the physical personality; it was esteemed equally with the soul and the shadow. Names were pawned for loans; a man could not use his name until it had been redeemed by payment of the loan. Nowadays one signs his name to a note. An individual’s name soon became important in magic. The savage had two names; the important one was regarded as too sacred to use on ordinary occasions, hence the second or everyday name — a nickname. He never told his real name to strangers. Any experience of an unusual nature caused him to change his name; sometimes it was in an effort to cure disease or to stop bad luck. The savage could get a new name by buying it from the tribal chief; men still invest in titles and degrees. But among the most primitive tribes, such as the African Bushmen, individual names do not exist.

6. Maagia harrastamine

6. The Practice of Magic

Maagiat harrastades kasutati võlukeppe, „ravivat” rituaali ja loitse, maagia harrastajad tavatsesid töötada alasti. Ürgsete maagide hulgas oli palju rohkem naisi kui mehi. „Ravimine” tähendab maagias müsteeriumit, mitte ravimist. Ürginimene ei ravinud end kunagi ise, ta kasutas ravimeid vaid maagiaasjatundjate soovitusel. Ka kahekümnenda sajandi voodoo-ravitsejad on tüüpilised muistsed maagid.

88:6.1 (972.1) Magic was practiced through the use of wands, “medicine” ritual, and incantations, and it was customary for the practitioner to work unclothed. Women outnumbered the men among primitive magicians. In magic, “medicine” means mystery, not treatment. The savage never doctored himself; he never used medicines except on the advice of the specialists in magic. And the voodoo doctors of the twentieth century are typical of the magicians of old.

Maagial oli nii avalik kui ka isiklik pool. Ravitseja, šamaani või preestri sooritatud toimingud arvati toovat kasu kogu hõimule. Nõiad ja võlurid tegelesid isikliku ja omakasupüüdliku maagiaga, millega taheti vaenlastele halba teha. Sellest duaalsest spiritismist, usust headesse ja halbadesse vaimudesse, tekkisid hiljem uskumused valgesse ja musta maagiasse. Religiooni arenedes hakati maagiaks nimetama nii vaime, kes tegutsesid väljaspool oma kultust, kui ka vanemaid uskumusi tontidesse.

88:6.2 (972.2) There was both a public and a private phase to magic. That performed by the medicine man, shaman, or priest was supposed to be for the good of the whole tribe. Witches, sorcerers, and wizards dispensed private magic, personal and selfish magic which was employed as a coercive method of bringing evil on one’s enemies. The concept of dual spiritism, good and bad spirits, gave rise to the later beliefs in white and black magic. And as religion evolved, magic was the term applied to spirit operations outside one’s own cult, and it also referred to older ghost beliefs.

Väga maagiline mõju oli sõnaühenditel, rituaalsetel lauludel ja loitsudel. Mõned varased loitsud arenesid lõpuks palvusteks. Peagi harrastati imiteerivat maagiat, palvused mängiti läbi, maagilised tantsud ei olnud midagi muud kui dramatiseeritud palvused. Palvused asendasid üha enam ohverdamistel maagiat.

88:6.3 (972.3) Word combinations, the ritual of chants and incantations, were highly magical. Some early incantations finally evolved into prayers. Presently, imitative magic was practiced; prayers were acted out; magical dances were nothing but dramatic prayers. Prayer gradually displaced magic as the associate of sacrifice.

Käeliigutused, mis olid kõnest vanemad, olid palju pühamad ja maagilisemad ning järeleaimamisel arvati olevat tugev võlujõud. Punased inimesed lavastasid sageli pühvlitantsu, milles üks neist mängis pühvlit, kelle kinnipüüdmine kindlustas eelseisva jahi edukuse. Maipüha seksuaalsed pidustused olid samuti vaid imiteeriv maagia, mis vihjas taimeriigi seksuaalkirgedele. Nukku kasutas maagilise talismanina esimesena viljatu naine.

88:6.4 (972.4) Gesture, being older than speech, was the more holy and magical, and mimicry was believed to have strong magical power. The red men often staged a buffalo dance in which one of their number would play the part of a buffalo and, in being caught, would insure the success of the impending hunt. The sex festivities of May Day were simply imitative magic, a suggestive appeal to the sex passions of the plant world. The doll was first employed as a magic talisman by the barren wife.

Maagia oli üks oks areneva religiooni puust, mis kandis lõpuks teadusliku ajastu vilju. Usk astroloogiasse viis astronoomia väljaarenemisele, usk tarkade kivisse viis metallide töötlemiseni ja usk maagilistesse arvudesse pani aluse matemaatikale.

88:6.5 (972.5) Magic was the branch off the evolutionary religious tree which eventually bore the fruit of a scientific age. Belief in astrology led to the development of astronomy; belief in a philosopher’s stone led to the mastery of metals, while belief in magic numbers founded the science of mathematics.

Ent selline amulette täis maailm aitas väga palju kaasa isiklike ambitsioonide ja algatusvõime kadumisele. Lisatöö või usinuse vilju peeti maagiliseks. Kui kellegi põllul kasvas rohkem vilja kui naabril, võis teda kutsuda hõimujuhi ette ja süüdistada ülearuse vilja väljanõidumises laisa naabri põllult. Barbaarsetel aegadel oli tõepoolest ohtlik väga palju teada, sest alati oli risk saada nõiana hukatud.

88:6.6 (972.6) But a world so filled with charms did much to destroy all personal ambition and initiative. The fruits of extra labor or of diligence were looked upon as magical. If a man had more grain in his field than his neighbor, he might be haled before the chief and charged with enticing this extra grain from the indolent neighbor’s field. Indeed, in the days of barbarism it was dangerous to know very much; there was always the chance of being executed as a black artist.

Teadus eemaldab järk-järgult elust õnnemängu elemendi. Ent kui nüüdisharidus peaks läbi kukkuma, pöördutaks peaaegu kohe tagasi ürgsete maagiliste uskumuste juurde. Keel sisaldab palju igandeid, mis annavad tunnistust, et rahvast on vallanud kaua aega ebausk. Näiteks võib tuua kas või sellised sõnad ja väljendid nagu lummatud, õnnetu tähe all sündinud, vallatud, ilmutus, kaduda laskma, teravmeelsus, võluv, rabatud ja hämmastunud. Arukad inimesed usuvad ikka veel head õnne, kurja silma ja astroloogiat.

88:6.7 (972.7) Gradually science is removing the gambling element from life. But if modern methods of education should fail, there would be an almost immediate reversion to the primitive beliefs in magic. These superstitions still linger in the minds of many so-called civilized people. Language contains many fossils which testify that the race has long been steeped in magical superstition, such words as spellbound, ill-starred, possessions, inspiration, spirit away, ingenuity, entrancing, thunderstruck, and astonished. And intelligent human beings still believe in good luck, the evil eye, and astrology.

Iidne maagia oli nüüdisaegse teaduse kookon, omal ajal asendamatu, on see nüüd oma kasulikkuse minetanud. Võhikliku ebausu fantaasiad erutasid inimese ürgset meelt seni, kuni tekkisid teaduslikud arusaamad. Urantia on praegu selle intellektuaalse evolutsiooni koidikul. Pool maailma haarab innukalt tõe valguse ja teaduslike avastuste faktide järele, teine pool aga kidub iidse ebausu ja vaid väheke varjatuma maagia embuses.

88:6.8 (973.1) Ancient magic was the cocoon of modern science, indispensable in its time but now no longer useful. And so the phantasms of ignorant superstition agitated the primitive minds of men until the concepts of science could be born. Today, Urantia is in the twilight zone of this intellectual evolution. One half the world is grasping eagerly for the light of truth and the facts of scientific discovery, while the other half languishes in the arms of ancient superstition and but thinly disguised magic.

[Esitanud Nebadoni Kirgas Õhtutäht.]

88:6.9 (973.2) [Presented by a Brilliant Evening Star of Nebadon.]





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