URANTIA RAAMAT - 85. Kiri. Palvelduse päritolu

(UF-EST-001-2010-1)

URANTIA RAAMAT   

III OSA: Urantia Ajalugu



85. Kiri. Palvelduse päritolu

Paper 85 : The Origins of Worship

ALGELISEL religioonil on bioloogiline päritolu, see kujunes evolutsiooni käigus loomulikul teel, kui mitte arvestada kõlbelisi kaastähendusi ja mitmeid vaimseid mõjutusi. Kõrgematel loomadel on hirmud, kuid puuduvad illusioonid, seetõttu pole neil ka religiooni. Inimene loob algelise religiooni oma hirmudest ja oma illusioonide abil.

85:0.1 (944.1) PRIMITIVE religion had a biologic origin, a natural evolutionary development, aside from moral associations and apart from all spiritual influences. The higher animals have fears but no illusions, hence no religion. Man creates his primitive religions out of his fears and by means of his illusions.

Inimliigi evolutsioonis esineb palveldus selle algelistes avaldumisvormides juba ammu enne seda, kui inimmõistus suudab formuleerida keerulisemaid ettekujutusi oma praegusest ja tulevasest elust, mida võiks nimetada religiooniks. Varane religioon oli olemuselt täiesti intellektuaalne ja tugines tervenisti assotsiatsioonidele. Palveldamisobjektid olid täiesti sugestiivsed: nendeks olid läheduses asuvad loodusobjektid või asjad, mis tundusid lihtsameelsete primitiivsete urantialaste igapäevaelu kogemustega võrreldes tähtsad.

85:0.2 (944.2) In the evolution of the human species, worship in its primitive manifestations appears long before the mind of man is capable of formulating the more complex concepts of life now and in the hereafter which deserve to be called religion. Early religion was wholly intellectual in nature and was entirely predicated on associational circumstances. The objects of worship were altogether suggestive; they consisted of the things of nature which were close at hand, or which loomed large in the commonplace experience of the simple-minded primitive Urantians.

Kui religioon arenes loodusekummardamisest edasi, omandas see vaimsed juured, aga oli siiski alati tingitud sotsiaalsest keskkonnast. Loodusekummardamise arenedes tekkis inimesel nägemus tööjaotusest surmajärgses maailmas; järvedel, puudel, koskedel, vihmal ja sadadel muudel maistel nähtustel olid omad loodusvaimud.

85:0.3 (944.3) When religion once evolved beyond nature worship, it acquired roots of spirit origin but was nevertheless always conditioned by the social environment. As nature worship developed, man’s concepts envisioned a division of labor in the supermortal world; there were nature spirits for lakes, trees, waterfalls, rain, and hundreds of other ordinary terrestrial phenomena.

Surelik inimene on ühel või teisel ajal kummardanud kõike, mis maakeral on olemas, kaasa arvatud iseennast. Ta on palveldanud ka peaaegu kõike, mida võib kujutleda taevas ja allpool maapinda. Ürginimene kartis kõiki jõu avaldumisi; ta kummardas kõiki loodusnähtusi, mida ei suutnud mõista. Võimsad loodusjõud, näiteks tormid, üleujutused, maavärinad, maalihked, vulkaanid, tulekahjud, kuumus ja pakane, avaldasid inimese avarduvale meelele sügavat mõju. Elu seletamatuid asju nimetatakse praegugi „vääramatuks jõuks” ja „Jumala äraarvamatuks tahteks”.

85:0.4 (944.4) At one time or another mortal man has worshiped everything on the face of the earth, including himself. He has also worshiped about everything imaginable in the sky and beneath the surface of the earth. Primitive man feared all manifestations of power; he worshiped every natural phenomenon he could not comprehend. The observation of powerful natural forces, such as storms, floods, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, fire, heat, and cold, greatly impressed the expanding mind of man. The inexplicable things of life are still termed “acts of God” and “mysterious dispensations of Providence.”

1. Kivide ja kinkude kummardamine

1. Worship of Stones and Hills

Inimese esimene palveldamisobjekt oli kivi. Tänapäeval palveldavad Lõuna-India kateri rahvas ja arvukad Põhja-India hõimud ikka veel kivi. Jaakob magas kivil, sest ta austas ja isegi võidis seda. Raahel peitis mitu püha kivi oma telki.

85:1.1 (944.5) The first object to be worshiped by evolving man was a stone. Today the Kateri people of southern India still worship a stone, as do numerous tribes in northern India. Jacob slept on a stone because he venerated it; he even anointed it. Rachel concealed a number of sacred stones in her tent.

Kivid jätsid varasele inimesele erakordse mulje just sellega, et nad võisid nii äkki ülesharitud põllule või karjamaale ilmuda. Erosiooni ega maalihete tagajärgedest ei teatud toona midagi. Samuti olid kivid sügavat muljet avaldavad seetõttu, et sarnanesid sageli loomadele. Tsiviliseeritud inimese tähelepanu köidavad mägedes arvukad kivimoodustised, mis on väga sarnased loomadega või isegi inimnäolised. Ent kõige tugevama mulje jätsid meteoorid, mida ürginimesed nägid lõõskavalt suursugustena läbi atmosfääri vuhisemas. Lendtäht äratas varases inimeses aukartust ja ta oli kergesti valmis uskuma, et need lõõmavad viirud tähistavad vaimu teed maakerale. Pole ime, et inimesed hakkasid niisuguseid nähtusi kummardama, eriti kui nad hiljem need meteoriidid üles leidsid. Ja see viis ka kõigi teiste kivide veelgi suuremale austamisele. Bengalis kummardavad paljud meteoriiti, mis 1880. a maakerale langes.

85:1.2 (944.6) Stones first impressed early man as being out of the ordinary because of the manner in which they would so suddenly appear on the surface of a cultivated field or pasture. Men failed to take into account either erosion or the results of the overturning of soil. Stones also greatly impressed early peoples because of their frequent resemblance to animals. The attention of civilized man is arrested by numerous stone formations in the mountains which so much resemble the faces of animals and even men. But the most profound influence was exerted by meteoric stones which primitive humans beheld hurtling through the atmosphere in flaming grandeur. The shooting star was awesome to early man, and he easily believed that such blazing streaks marked the passage of a spirit on its way to earth. No wonder men were led to worship such phenomena, especially when they subsequently discovered the meteors. And this led to greater reverence for all other stones. In Bengal many worship a meteor which fell to earth in A.D. 1880.

Kõigil vanaaja sugukondadel ja hõimudel olid omad pühad kivid ja enamik nüüdisaegseid rahvaid austab teatud määral mõningaid kive — kalliskive. Indias austati viiest kivist koosnevat rühma; Kreekas kuulus sellesse rühma kolmkümmend kivi; punaste inimeste austusobjektiks oli tavaliselt kiviring. Roomlased heitsid alati kivi õhku, kui soovisid Jupiteri tunnistajaks kutsuda. Indias võib kivi veel tänapäevalgi tunnistajana kasutada. Mõnes piirkonnas kasutatakse kivi seaduse talismanina ja kivi mainele toetudes õnnestub kurjategijaid kohtusse kutsuda. Lihtsurelikud ei samasta siiski Jumalust alati austava riituse objektiga. Paljudel juhtudel on fetišid pigem reaalsete palveldamisobjektide sümbolid.

85:1.3 (945.1) All ancient clans and tribes had their sacred stones, and most modern peoples manifest a degree of veneration for certain types of stones — their jewels. A group of five stones was reverenced in India; in Greece it was a cluster of thirty; among the red men it was usually a circle of stones. The Romans always threw a stone into the air when invoking Jupiter. In India even to this day a stone can be used as a witness. In some regions a stone may be employed as a talisman of the law, and by its prestige an offender can be haled into court. But simple mortals do not always identify Deity with an object of reverent ceremony. Such fetishes are many times mere symbols of the real object of worship.

Eriliselt austasid vanaaja inimesed kivides leiduvaid auke. Arvati, et poorsed kivid on ebatavaliselt tõhusad haiguste ravimisel. Kõrvadesse kivide kandmiseks auke ei tehtud, kuid kivid pandi kõrva, et kõrvaauke lahti hoida. Ka nüüdisajal teevad ebausklikud inimesed müntidesse auke. Aafrika põliselanikud sooritavad oma kivifetišitega mitmesuguseid toiminguid. Tegelikult valitseb kõigi vähearenenud hõimude ja rahvaste seas kivide ebausklik austamine. Kivide kummardamine on praegugi veel kogu maailmas laialt levinud. Hauakivi püsib kui nende kujundite ja iidolite sümbol, mis raiuti kivisse seoses usuga lahkunud kaasinimeste hingedesse ja vaimudesse.

85:1.4 (945.2) The ancients had a peculiar regard for holes in stones. Such porous rocks were supposed to be unusually efficacious in curing diseases. Ears were not perforated to carry stones, but the stones were put in to keep the ear holes open. Even in modern times superstitious persons make holes in coins. In Africa the natives make much ado over their fetish stones. In fact, among all backward tribes and peoples stones are still held in superstitious veneration. Stone worship is even now widespread over the world. The tombstone is a surviving symbol of images and idols which were carved in stone in connection with beliefs in ghosts and the spirits of departed fellow beings.

Kivide kummardamisele järgnes kinkude kummardamine ja esimesed künkad, mida palveldati, olid suured kivimoodustised. Peagi sai tavaks uskuda, et mägedes elavad jumalad, see andis aga täiendava põhjuse maapinna kõrgemaid kohti kummardada. Aja möödudes hakati mitmeid mägesid seostama teatavate jumalatega ja seetõttu pühadeks mägedeks pidama. Ebausklikud ürginimesed uskusid oma teadmatuses, et koopad viivad allilma, kus elavad kurjad vaimud ja deemonid, mägesid seevastu seostati hiljem väljakujunenud ettekujutustega headest vaimudest ja jumalustest.

85:1.5 (945.3) Hill worship followed stone worship, and the first hills to be venerated were large stone formations. It presently became the custom to believe that the gods inhabited the mountains, so that high elevations of land were worshiped for this additional reason. As time passed, certain mountains were associated with certain gods and therefore became holy. The ignorant and superstitious aborigines believed that caves led to the underworld, with its evil spirits and demons, in contrast with the mountains, which were identified with the later evolving concepts of good spirits and deities.

2. Taimede ja puude kummardamine

2. Worship of Plants and Trees

Taimi algul kardeti ja hiljem kummardati neist saadavate joovastavate vedelike tõttu. Ürginimene uskus, et joove teeb jumalikuks. Selles kogemuses arvati olevat midagi ebatavalist ja püha. Ka nüüdisajal kasutatakse alkoholi puhul sõna „piiritus”.

85:2.1 (945.4) Plants were first feared and then worshiped because of the intoxicating liquors which were derived therefrom. Primitive man believed that intoxication rendered one divine. There was supposed to be something unusual and sacred about such an experience. Even in modern times alcohol is known as “spirits.”

Varane inimene vaatas võrsuvat vilja kartuse ja ebauskliku aukartusega. Apostel Paulus ei olnud esimene, kes sai võrsuvast viljast sügavaid vaimseid õppetunde ja rajas sellele religioossed uskumused.

85:2.2 (945.5) Early man looked upon sprouting grain with dread and superstitious awe. The Apostle Paul was not the first to draw profound spiritual lessons from, and predicate religious beliefs on, the sprouting grain.

Puude kummardamise kultused kuuluvad vanimate usuliste ilmingute rühma. Kõik muistsed abielud sõlmiti puude all ja lapsi soovivaid naisi nähti vahel metsas tugevat tammepuud kirglikult embamas. Paljusid taimi ja puid austati nende tõelise või kujuteldava ravitoime pärast. Metslane uskus, et kõik keemilised toimed tulenevad otseselt üleloomulike jõudude tegevusest.

85:2.3 (945.6) The cults of tree worship are among the oldest religious groups. All early marriages were held under the trees, and when women desired children, they would sometimes be found out in the forest affectionately embracing a sturdy oak. Many plants and trees were venerated because of their real or fancied medicinal powers. The savage believed that all chemical effects were due to the direct activity of supernatural forces.

Puuvaimude kohta oli eri hõimudel ja rahvastel väga erinevaid mõtteid. Mõnes puus elasid head vaimud, teises petlikud ja julmad. Soomlased uskusid, et enamikus puudes elavad head vaimud. Šveitslased aga umbusaldasid puid kaua aega, arvates, et neis asuvad riuklikud vaimud. India ja Venemaa idaosa elanikud peavad puuvaime halbadeks. Patagoonlased kummardavad puid veel praegugi nagu varased semiididki. Kaua aega pärast seda, kui heebrealased lakkasid puid palveldamast, jätkasid nad siiski oma erinevate jumaluste austamist saludes. Elupuu kultus oli kunagi levinud kõikjal peale Hiina.

85:2.4 (945.7) Ideas about tree spirits varied greatly among different tribes and races. Some trees were indwelt by kindly spirits; others harbored the deceptive and cruel. The Finns believed that most trees were occupied by kind spirits. The Swiss long mistrusted the trees, believing they contained tricky spirits. The inhabitants of India and eastern Russia regard the tree spirits as being cruel. The Patagonians still worship trees, as did the early Semites. Long after the Hebrews ceased tree worship, they continued to venerate their various deities in the groves. Except in China, there once existed a universal cult of the tree of life.

Uskumus, et puust võluvitsaga saab kindlaks teha vee või kalliskivide asukoha maapõues, pärineb vanaaja puukultustest. Mõned neist iidsetest puukummardamistavadest ja hilisema aja puukultustest on säilinud meiupuuna, jõulupuuna ja ebauskliku tavana koputada vastu puud.

85:2.5 (946.1) The belief that water or precious metals beneath the earth’s surface can be detected by a wooden divining rod is a relic of the ancient tree cults. The Maypole, the Christmas tree, and the superstitious practice of rapping on wood perpetuate certain of the ancient customs of tree worship and the later-day tree cults.

Paljud varaseimad looduse austamise vormid segunesid hiljem väljakujunenud palveldamisviisidega, kuid varaseimat tüüpi palvused, millele ergutasid meeleabivaimud, toimusid ammu enne seda, kui inimkonna äsjaärganud religioossus hakkas täielikult reageerima vaimsetele mõjutustele.

85:2.6 (946.2) Many of these earliest forms of nature veneration became blended with the later evolving techniques of worship, but the earliest mind-adjutant-activated types of worship were functioning long before the newly awakening religious nature of mankind became fully responsive to the stimulus of spiritual influences.

3. Loomade kummardamine

3. The Worship of Animals

Ürginimese suhtumine kõrgematesse loomadesse oli iseäralik ja sõbralik. Tema esivanemad olid elanud loomadega koos ja isegi nendega paari heitnud. Lõuna-Aasias usuti vanal ajal, et inimese hing tuleb looma kujul maa peale tagasi. Selles uskumuses oli säilinud veelgi varasem loomade kummardamise tava.

85:3.1 (946.3) Primitive man had a peculiar and fellow feeling for the higher animals. His ancestors had lived with them and even mated with them. In southern Asia it was early believed that the souls of men came back to earth in animal form. This belief was a survival of the still earlier practice of worshiping animals.

Varased inimesed austasid loomi nende jõu ja kavaluse pärast. Nad pidasid looma teravat haistmismeelt ja kaugelenägevaid silmi märgiks, et see olend saab vaimudelt abi. Kõiki loomi on mingil ajal mõne rahva poolt kummardatud. Nende palveldamisobjektide hulka kuulusid ka pooleldi inimeseks ja pooleldi loomaks peetud olendid, näiteks kentaurid ja merineitsid.

85:3.2 (946.4) Early men revered the animals for their power and their cunning. They thought the keen scent and the farseeing eyes of certain creatures betokened spirit guidance. The animals have all been worshiped by one race or another at one time or another. Among such objects of worship were creatures that were regarded as half human and half animal, such as centaurs and mermaids.

Heebrealased kummardasid kuni kuningas Hiskija ajani madusid ja hindudel on oma kodumadudega veel praegugi sõbralikud suhted. Hiinlaste draakonikummardamine pärineb samuti maokultusest. Mao tarkus oli kreeka meditsiini sümbol ning madu kasutavad logona ka praegused arstid. Maomaagia pärineb ussikultusest haaratud naisšamaanide ajast, kes muutusid igapäevaste maohammustuste tagajärjel ussimürgi suhtes immuunseks, sattudes sellest tegelikult isegi sõltuvusse, nii et ei saanud enam selleta elada.

85:3.3 (946.5) The Hebrews worshiped serpents down to the days of King Hezekiah, and the Hindus still maintain friendly relations with their house snakes. The Chinese worship of the dragon is a survival of the snake cults. The wisdom of the serpent was a symbol of Greek medicine and is still employed as an emblem by modern physicians. The art of snake charming has been handed down from the days of the female shamans of the snake love cult, who, as the result of daily snake bites, became immune, in fact, became genuine venom addicts and could not get along without this poison.

Putukate ja muude loomade kummardamisele aitas kaasa kuldreegli „tee teistele (kõigile eluvormidele) sama, mida soovid endale” hilisem vääriti tõlgendamine. Muistsed inimesed uskusid kunagi, et tuul tekib alati lindude tiivalöökidest ning seetõttu kartsid ja samas kummardasid kõiki tiivulisi olendeid. Põhjamaadel arvati vanasti, et varjutusi põhjustab hunt, kes on osa kuud või päikest alla neelanud. Hindudel esineb Višnu sageli hobusepeaga. Loomasümbol esindab tihti mõnda unustusse vajunud jumalat või kadunud kultust. Religiooni arengu algusjärgus sai lambast tüüpiline ohvriloom ja tuvist rahu ning armastuse sümbol.

85:3.4 (946.6) The worship of insects and other animals was promoted by a later misinterpretation of the golden rule — doing to others (every form of life) as you would be done by. The ancients once believed that all winds were produced by the wings of birds and therefore both feared and worshiped all winged creatures. The early Nordics thought that eclipses were caused by a wolf that devoured a portion of the sun or moon. The Hindus often show Vishnu with a horse’s head. Many times an animal symbol stands for a forgotten god or a vanished cult. Early in evolutionary religion the lamb became the typical sacrificial animal and the dove the symbol of peace and love.

Religioonis võib esineda nii häid kui ka halbu sümboleid, olenevalt sellest, kas ja mil määral tõrjub sümbol kõrvale esialgse palveldamisidee. Sümboolikat ei tohiks segi ajada otsese ebajumalakummardamisega, mille puhul füüsilist objekti otseselt ja tegelikult palveldatakse.

85:3.5 (946.7) In religion, symbolism may be either good or bad just to the extent that the symbol does or does not displace the original worshipful idea. And symbolism must not be confused with direct idolatry wherein the material object is directly and actually worshiped.

4. Loodusjõudude kummardamine

4. Worship of the Elements

Inimkond on kummardanud maad, õhku, vett ja tuld. Ürgrassid austasid allikaid ja kummardasid jõgesid. Isegi praegu õitseb Mongoolias mõjukas jõekultus. Babüloonias sai ristimine usutseremooniaks ja kord aastas harrastasid rituaalseid suplusi creeki hõimu indiaanlased. Muistsel inimesel oli kerge kujutleda, et vulisevates ojades, purskuvates allikates, voolavates jõgedes ja mühisevates koskedes elavad vaimud. Voolavad veed jätsid lihtsameelsele inimesele ereda mulje, pannes ta uskuma vaimude mõjusse ja üleloomulikesse jõududesse. Vahel keelduti uppujat abistamast, sest kardeti mõnda jõejumalat sellega solvata.

85:4.1 (946.8) Mankind has worshiped earth, air, water, and fire. The primitive races venerated springs and worshiped rivers. Even now in Mongolia there flourishes an influential river cult. Baptism became a religious ceremonial in Babylon, and the Creeks practiced the annual ritual bath. It was easy for the ancients to imagine that the spirits dwelt in the bubbling springs, gushing fountains, flowing rivers, and raging torrents. Moving waters vividly impressed these simple minds with beliefs of spirit animation and supernatural power. Sometimes a drowning man would be refused succor for fear of offending some river god.

Paljud objektid ja arvukad sündmused on erinevaid rahvaid eri aegadel religioosselt stimuleerinud. Veel praegugi kummardavad paljud India mäestikuhõimud vikerkaart. Nii Indias kui ka Aafrikas peetakse vikerkaart hiiglaslikuks taevaseks maoks, heebrealased ja kristlased nimetavad seda aga „lepingu kaareks”. Sel, mida ühes maailma osas soodsaks peetakse, võib kuskil mujal arvatavalt ka ebasoodne mõju olla. Lõuna-Ameerikas on idatuul jumal, sest toob vihma; Indias on see kuri vaim, sest toob tolmu ja põhjustab põuda. Iidsed beduiinid uskusid, et liivakeeriseid tekitab loodusvaim ja isegi Moosese ajal oli usk loodusvaimudesse nii tugev, et nad jäid heebrea usundisse tule-, vee- ja õhuinglitena.

85:4.2 (947.1) Many things and numerous events have functioned as religious stimuli to different peoples in different ages. A rainbow is yet worshiped by many of the hill tribes of India. In both India and Africa the rainbow is thought to be a gigantic celestial snake; Hebrews and Christians regard it as “the bow of promise.” Likewise, influences regarded as beneficent in one part of the world may be looked upon as malignant in other regions. The east wind is a god in South America, for it brings rain; in India it is a devil because it brings dust and causes drought. The ancient Bedouins believed that a nature spirit produced the sand whirls, and even in the times of Moses belief in nature spirits was strong enough to insure their perpetuation in Hebrew theology as angels of fire, water, and air.

Nii pilvi, vihma kui ka rahet on arvukad hõimud ja paljud varased looduskultused samuti kartnud ja kummardanud. Tugevad tuuled koos kõuemürina ja piksega tekitasid muistses inimeses aukartust. Need tormitsevad loodusjõud jätsid temasse nii sügava mulje, et äikest peeti vihase jumala hääleks. Tulekummardamine ühines äikesehirmuga ja levis laialdaselt paljude algeliste rühmade seas.

85:4.3 (947.2) Clouds, rain, and hail have all been feared and worshiped by numerous primitive tribes and by many of the early nature cults. Windstorms with thunder and lightning overawed early man. He was so impressed with these elemental disturbances that thunder was regarded as the voice of an angry god. The worship of fire and the fear of lightning were linked together and were widespread among many early groups.

Tuli segunes ürgaja hirmudest vaevatud surelike meeles maagiaga. Maagia kummardaja mäletab eredalt üht juhuslikult õnnestunud nõidust, unustades muretult kümned negatiivsed tulemused, täielikud ebaõnnestumised. Tule austamine jõudis kõrgpunkti Pärsias, kus see püsis kaua. Mõni hõim kummardas tuld, nagu oleks see ise jumalus, teised palveldasid seda kui austatud jumaluste puhastava ja vabastava vaimu leegitsevat sümbolit. Vestaneitsid pidid valvama püha tuld ja kahekümnendal sajandil kuulub küünalde põletamine paljude usuteenistuste rituaali juurde.

85:4.4 (947.3) Fire was mixed up with magic in the minds of primitive fear-ridden mortals. A devotee of magic will vividly remember one positive chance result in the practice of his magic formulas, while he nonchalantly forgets a score of negative results, out-and-out failures. Fire reverence reached its height in Persia, where it long persisted. Some tribes worshiped fire as a deity itself; others revered it as the flaming symbol of the purifying and purging spirit of their venerated deities. Vestal virgins were charged with the duty of watching sacred fires, and in the twentieth century candles still burn as a part of the ritual of many religious services.

5. Taevakehade kummardamine

5. Worship of the Heavenly Bodies

Kivide, küngaste, puude ja loomade kummardamine arenes loomuldasa loodusjõudude kartlikust austusest päikese, kuu ja taevatähtede jumalikustamiseni. Indias ja mujalgi peeti tähti lihalikust elust lahkunud suurmeeste aulisteks hingedeks. Kaldea tähekultuslased pidasid end taevaisa ja maaema lasteks.

85:5.1 (947.4) The worship of rocks, hills, trees, and animals naturally developed up through fearful veneration of the elements to the deification of the sun, moon, and stars. In India and elsewhere the stars were regarded as the glorified souls of great men who had departed from the life in the flesh. The Chaldean star cultists considered themselves to be the children of the sky father and the earth mother.

Kuu kummardamine eelnes päikese kummardamisele. Kuu austamise kõrgpunkt oli küttimisajastul, päikese kummardamine sai põhiliseks usutseremooniaks järgnevatel põllumajandusaegadel. Päikese kummardamine juurdus esmakordselt ulatuslikult Indias ja püsis seal ka kõige kauem. Pärsias kujunes päikese austamisest hiljem Mithra kultus. Paljud rahvad pidasid päikest oma kuningate esiisaks. Kaldealased seadsid päikese „Universumi seitsme ringi” keskele. Hilisemad tsivilisatsioonid austasid päikest sellega, et andsid tema nime esimesele nädalapäevale.

85:5.2 (947.5) Moon worship preceded sun worship. Veneration of the moon was at its height during the hunting era, while sun worship became the chief religious ceremony of the subsequent agricultural ages. Solar worship first took extensive root in India, and there it persisted the longest. In Persia sun veneration gave rise to the later Mithraic cult. Among many peoples the sun was regarded as the ancestor of their kings. The Chaldeans put the sun in the center of “the seven circles of the universe.” Later civilizations honored the sun by giving its name to the first day of the week.

Päikesejumal arvati olevat müstiline isa neitsistsündinud määratud poegadele, keda annetatakse aeg-ajalt soositud rahvaid päästma. Need üleloomulikud lapsed saadeti alati mõnele pühale jõele tuulte ja lainete meelevalda, kust nad imelisel moel leiti, misjärel nad kasvasid imepärasteks isiksusteks ja oma rahva päästjateks.

85:5.3 (947.6) The sun god was supposed to be the mystic father of the virgin-born sons of destiny who ever and anon were thought to be bestowed as saviors upon favored races. These supernatural infants were always put adrift upon some sacred river to be rescued in an extraordinary manner, after which they would grow up to become miraculous personalities and the deliverers of their peoples.

6. Inimese kummardamine

6. Worship of Man

Palveldanud kõike maa peal ja kõrgel taevas, ei ole inimene kõhelnud jumaldamast samamoodi ka ennast. Lihtsameelne metslane ei erista loomi, inimesi ja jumalaid väga selgelt.

85:6.1 (948.1) Having worshiped everything else on the face of the earth and in the heavens above, man has not hesitated to honor himself with such adoration. The simple-minded savage makes no clear distinction between beasts, men, and gods.

Muistne inimene pidas kõiki ebatavalisi isikuid üleloomulikeks ja kartis sääraseid olendeid nii väga, et austas neid aukartlikult, kohati lausa palveldades. Isegi kaksikute sünnitamist peeti kas väga õnnetoovaks või väga pahaendeliseks sündmuseks. Nõdrameelseid, langetõbiseid ja vaimuhaigeid kummardasid sageli nende normaalse mõistusega kaaslased, kes uskusid, et neis ebanormaalsetes isikutes elavad jumalad. Kummardati preestreid, kuningaid ja prohveteid; vanaaja pühamehed arvati olevat jumaluste ilmutused.

85:6.2 (948.2) Early man regarded all unusual persons as superhuman, and he so feared such beings as to hold them in reverential awe; to some degree he literally worshiped them. Even having twins was regarded as being either very lucky or very unlucky. Lunatics, epileptics, and the feeble-minded were often worshiped by their normal-minded fellows, who believed that such abnormal beings were indwelt by the gods. Priests, kings, and prophets were worshiped; the holy men of old were looked upon as inspired by the deities.

Hõimujuhid surid ja nad ülendati jumalusteks. Hiljem kuulutati silmapaistvad hinged pärast surma pühakuteks. Kuni arengule kaasa ei aidatud, ei tekkinud kunagi kõrgemaid jumalaid lahkunute ausse tõstetud, ülendatud ja arenenud vaimudest. Varasel arenguastmel loob religioon ise endale jumalad. Ilmutuse käigus loovad Jumalad religiooni. Arenev religioon loob ise endale sureliku inimese kuju ja näo järgi jumalad, ilmutuslik religioon püüab arendada ja muundada surelikku inimest Jumala kuju ja näo järgi.

85:6.3 (948.3) Tribal chiefs died and were deified. Later, distinguished souls passed on and were sainted. Unaided evolution never originated gods higher than the glorified, exalted, and evolved spirits of deceased humans. In early evolution religion creates its own gods. In the course of revelation the Gods formulate religion. Evolutionary religion creates its gods in the image and likeness of mortal man; revelatory religion seeks to evolve and transform mortal man into the image and likeness of God.

Vaime-jumalaid, kes arvati olevat inimlikku päritolu, tuleks eristada loodusjumalatest, sest looduse kummardamine arendas välja panteoni — jumalate tasemele tõstetud loodusvaimud. Looduskultused arenesid edasi koos hiljem tekkinud tondikultustega ja nad mõjutasid teineteist vastastikku. Paljud religioossed süsteemid sisaldasid duaalse jumaluse kontseptsiooni, mis hõlmas nii loodusjumalaid kui ka vaime-jumalaid; mõnes usundis on need kontseptsioonid segadusseajavalt vastastikku läbi põimunud, näiteks oli vaimust kangelane Thor ka välgu isand.

85:6.4 (948.4) The ghost gods, who are of supposed human origin, should be distinguished from the nature gods, for nature worship did evolve a pantheon — nature spirits elevated to the position of gods. The nature cults continued to develop along with the later appearing ghost cults, and each exerted an influence upon the other. Many religious systems embraced a dual concept of deity, nature gods and ghost gods; in some theologies these concepts are confusingly intertwined, as is illustrated by Thor, a ghost hero who was also master of the lightning.

Ent oma kõrgpunkti jõudis inimese kummardamine inimese poolt siis, kui ilmalikud valitsejad nõudsid alluvatelt suurt austust ja väitsid oma nõudmiste kinnituseks, et põlvnevad jumalusest.

85:6.5 (948.5) But the worship of man by man reached its height when temporal rulers commanded such veneration from their subjects and, in substantiation of such demands, claimed to have descended from deity.

7. Palveldamisvaim ja tarkusevaim

7. The Adjutants of Worship and Wisdom

Looduse kummardamine näib olevat tekkinud ürgaja meeste ja naiste meeles loomulikult ja spontaanselt ning nii see ka oli; ent nende algelises meeles tegutses kogu selle aja kuues meeleabivaim, mis oli neile rahvastele annetatud inimevolutsiooni seda faasi suunava mõjuna. See vaim stimuleeris pidevalt inimliigi palveldamistungi, ehkki selle esimesed avaldumised olid väga algelised. Palveldamisvaim pani inimese palveldamistungile selge aluse, kuigi palveldamine oli motiveeritud loomalikust hirmust ja keskendus algul loodusobjektidele.

85:7.1 (948.6) Nature worship may seem to have arisen naturally and spontaneously in the minds of primitive men and women, and so it did; but there was operating all this time in these same primitive minds the sixth adjutant spirit, which had been bestowed upon these peoples as a directing influence of this phase of human evolution. And this spirit was constantly stimulating the worship urge of the human species, no matter how primitive its first manifestations might be. The spirit of worship gave definite origin to the human impulse to worship, notwithstanding that animal fear motivated the expression of worshipfulness, and that its early practice became centered upon objects of nature.

Peate arvestama, et kogu arengut juhtivaks ja kontrollivaks mõjuriks oli tunne, mitte mõte. Algelise meele jaoks pole hirmul, vältimisel, austamisel ja palveldamisel erilist vahet.

85:7.2 (948.7) You must remember that feeling, not thinking, was the guiding and controlling influence in all evolutionary development. To the primitive mind there is little difference between fearing, shunning, honoring, and worshiping.

Kui palveldamistungi manitseb ja suunab tarkus — meditatiivne ja kogemuslik mõtlemine —, kujuneb see tõelise religiooni ilminguks. Kui seitsmes meeleabivaim, tarkusevaim, jõuab tõhusa hoolekandeni, pöörab palveldav inimene oma palge looduselt ja loodusobjektidelt looduse Jumala ja kõige loodusliku igavese Looja poole.

85:7.3 (948.8) When the worship urge is admonished and directed by wisdom — meditative and experiential thinking — it then begins to develop into the phenomenon of real religion. When the seventh adjutant spirit, the spirit of wisdom, achieves effective ministration, then in worship man begins to turn away from nature and natural objects to the God of nature and to the eternal Creator of all things natural.

[Esitanud Nebadoni Kirgas Õhtutäht]

85:7.4 (949.1) [Presented by a Brilliant Evening Star of Nebadon.]





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