URANTIA RAAMAT - 62. Kiri. Varase inimese ürgrassid

(UF-EST-001-2010-1)

URANTIA RAAMAT   

III OSA: Urantia Ajalugu



62. Kiri. Varase inimese ürgrassid

Paper 62 : The Dawn Races of Early Man

LIGIKAUDU miljon aastat tagasi ilmusid äkki ja kolme järjestikuse mutatsiooniga inimkonna otsesed esivanemad, kes põlvnesid leemuri tüüpi, platsentaga imetajate varasest tüvikonnast. Nende varaste leemurite domineerivad jooned pärinesid arengulise eluplasma läänepoolsest ehk hilisemast ameerika rühmast. Kuid enne inimese esivanemate otseliini sisseseadmist täiustus see tüvikond Aafrikas arenenud keskmisena istutatud elu panustega. Idapoolne elurühm ei andnud inimliigi tegelikku tekkimisse peaaegu mingit panust.

62:0.1 (703.1) ABOUT one million years ago the immediate ancestors of mankind made their appearance by three successive and sudden mutations stemming from early stock of the lemur type of placental mammal. The dominant factors of these early lemurs were derived from the western or later American group of the evolving life plasm. But before establishing the direct line of human ancestry, this strain was reinforced by contributions from the central life implantation evolved in Africa. The eastern life group contributed little or nothing to the actual production of the human species.

1. Varased leemuritüübid

1. The Early Lemur Types

Inimliigi esivanematega seotud varased leemurid ei olnud otseses seoses varem eksisteerinud gibonite ja inimahvidega, kes elasid Euraasias ja Põhja-Aafrikas ning kelle järeltulijad on püsinud praeguse ajani. Nad ei olnud ka praegust tüüpi leemuri järeltulijad, kuigi pärinesid nende mõlema ühisest, juba ammu väljasurnud esivanemast.

62:1.1 (703.2) The early lemurs concerned in the ancestry of the human species were not directly related to the pre-existent tribes of gibbons and apes then living in Eurasia and northern Africa, whose progeny have survived to the present time. Neither were they the offspring of the modern type of lemur, though springing from an ancestor common to both but long since extinct.

Need varased leemurid arenesid küll välja läänepoolkeral, kuid inimkonna otsesed imetajatest esivanemad tekkisid Kagu-Aasias, elu keskmises esialgses istutamiskohas, kuid selle idapoolsete alade piiril. Mitu miljonit aastat tagasi olid põhja-ameerika tüüpi leemurid rännanud üle Beringi maasilla läände ja liikusid aegamööda piki Aasia rannikut kagu poole. Need rändavad suguharud jõudsid lõpuks tervislikku piirkonda, mis asus tollase laienenud Vahemere ja Hindustani poolsaare kõrgete mäestikupiirkondade vahel. Neil Indiast läänes paiknevatel aladel liitusid nad teiste, soodsate tüvikondadega ja kujunesidki inimsoo esivanemateks.

62:1.2 (703.3) While these early lemurs evolved in the Western Hemisphere, the establishment of the direct mammalian ancestry of mankind took place in southwestern Asia, in the original area of the central life implantation but on the borders of the eastern regions. Several million years ago the North American type lemurs had migrated westward over the Bering land bridge and had slowly made their way southwestward along the Asiatic coast. These migrating tribes finally reached the salubrious region lying between the then expanded Mediterranean Sea and the elevating mountainous regions of the Indian peninsula. In these lands to the west of India they united with other and favorable strains, thus establishing the ancestry of the human race.

Aja möödudes jäi India mererannik mägedest kagu pool järk-järgult vee alla, mis selle piirkonna elu täielikult muust maailmast eraldas. Sellele Mesopotaamia ehk Pärsia poolsaarele pääses vaid põhjaosa kaudu, kuid sellegi tee lõikasid lõuna poole tungivad liustikud korduvalt ära. Ning just sellel, tol ajal peaaegu paradiislikul alal ja just selle leemuritüüpi imetaja arenenumatest järeltulijatest tekkiski kaks suurt rühma, praegused inimahvid ja praegused inimesed.

62:1.3 (703.4) With the passing of time the seacoast of India southwest of the mountains gradually submerged, completely isolating the life of this region. There was no avenue of approach to, or escape from, this Mesopotamian or Persian peninsula except to the north, and that was repeatedly cut off by the southern invasions of the glaciers. And it was in this then almost paradisiacal area, and from the superior descendants of this lemur type of mammal, that there sprang two great groups, the simian tribes of modern times and the present-day human species.

2. Ürgimetajad

2. The Dawn Mammals

Veidi üle miljoni aasta tagasi ilmusid äkki mesopotaamia ürgimetajad, põhjaameerika leemuri tüüpi, platsentaga imetaja otsesed järeltulijad. Need olid peaaegu üheksakümne sentimeetri pikkused väikesed aktiivsed olendid; kuigi nad tavaliselt tagajalgadel ei käinud, võisid nad kergesti püsti seista. Nad olid karvased ja väledad ning vadistasid ahvide moodi, kuid erinevalt inimahvidest olid nemad lihasööjad. Neil oli algeline vastu kämmalt painduv pöial ja väga kasulik haardvarvas. Sealtmaalt arenes inimese-eelsetel liikidel vastu kämmalt painduv pöial üha edasi, kuna suure varba haaramisjõud kadus üha enam. Hilisematel inimahvidel säilis haardvarvas, kuid inimese tüüpi pöialt neil ei arenenudki.

62:2.1 (703.5) A little more than one million years ago the Mesopotamian dawn mammals, the direct descendants of the North American lemur type of placental mammal, suddenly appeared. They were active little creatures, almost three feet tall; and while they did not habitually walk on their hind legs, they could easily stand erect. They were hairy and agile and chattered in monkeylike fashion, but unlike the simian tribes, they were flesh eaters. They had a primitive opposable thumb as well as a highly useful grasping big toe. From this point onward the prehuman species successively developed the opposable thumb while they progressively lost the grasping power of the great toe. The later ape tribes retained the grasping big toe but never developed the human type of thumb.

Need ürgimetajad saavutasid oma täiskasvuea kolme-nelja-aastastena ning nende võimalik eluiga oli keskmiselt kakskümmend aastat. Järeltulijad sündisid reeglina ükshaaval, kuid vahel ka kaksikutena.

62:2.2 (704.1) These dawn mammals attained full growth when three or four years of age, having a potential life span, on the average, of about twenty years. As a rule offspring were born singly, although twins were occasional.

Selle uue liigi esindajatel oli oma suurusega võrreldes suurem aju kui ühelgi teisel seni maakeral elanud loomal. Neil oli palju emotsioone ja arvukalt instinkte, mis iseloomustasid hiljem ürginimest. Nad olid väga uudishimulikud ja vaimustusid väga oma ettevõtmiste õnnestumise üle. Toidunälg ja suguiha olid hästi arenenud ning algelises vastassoo peibutamises ja paarilise valimises avaldus selgelt suguline valik. Nad võitlesid raevukalt oma hõimlaste kaitsmiseks ja ilmutasid perekondlikes suhetes üsna suurt õrnust, neil oli häbile ja kahetsusele lähenev enesealandustunne. Nad olid väga kiinduvad ja oma paarilistele liigutavalt truud, aga kui asjaolud neid lahutasid, valisid nad uue partneri.

62:2.3 (704.2) The members of this new species had the largest brains for their size of any animal that had theretofore existed on earth. They experienced many of the emotions and shared numerous instincts which later characterized primitive man, being highly curious and exhibiting considerable elation when successful at any undertaking. Food hunger and sex craving were well developed, and a definite sex selection was manifested in a crude form of courtship and choice of mates. They would fight fiercely in defense of their kindred and were quite tender in family associations, possessing a sense of self-abasement bordering on shame and remorse. They were very affectionate and touchingly loyal to their mates, but if circumstances separated them, they would choose new partners.

Olles kasvult väikesed ja ergu meelega, tajumaks kodumetsade ohte, arenes neil erakordne hirmutunne, mis ajendas rakendama tarku ettevaatusabinõusid aitamaks oluliselt kaasa liigi püsimajäämisele, näiteks algeliste varjualuste ehitamine kõrgele puude otsa, millega välditi paljusid maapinnal elamisega kaasnevaid ohte. Inimkonna hirmukalduvused saidki konkreetsemalt alguse neil aegadel.

62:2.4 (704.3) Being small of stature and having keen minds to realize the dangers of their forest habitat, they developed an extraordinary fear which led to those wise precautionary measures that so enormously contributed to survival, such as their construction of crude shelters in the high treetops which eliminated many of the perils of ground life. The beginning of the fear tendencies of mankind more specifically dates from these days.

Neil ürgimetajatel arenes niisugune suguharuvaim, mida polnud varem ilmnenud. Nad olid küll väga seltsivad, aga siiski äärmiselt riiakad, kui nende tavalist rutiini mingil viisil häiriti, ja nad ägestusid, kui neid põhjalikult vihastati. Nende sõjakas loomus tuli neile aga igati kasuks, arenenumad rühmad astusid oma vähemarenenud naabritega kõhklematult sõtta ja selektiivse ellujäämise tulemusena liik üha täiustus. Üsna pea allus selle piirkonna väiksemate olendite elu nende ülemvõimule ja väga vähesed vanematest mittelihasööjatest ahvitaolistest suguharudest jäid püsima.

62:2.5 (704.4) These dawn mammals developed more of a tribal spirit than had ever been previously exhibited. They were, indeed, highly gregarious but nevertheless exceedingly pugnacious when in any way disturbed in the ordinary pursuit of their routine life, and they displayed fiery tempers when their anger was fully aroused. Their bellicose natures, however, served a good purpose; superior groups did not hesitate to make war on their inferior neighbors, and thus, by selective survival, the species was progressively improved. They very soon dominated the life of the smaller creatures of this region, and very few of the older noncarnivorous monkeylike tribes survived.

Rohkem kui tuhande aasta jooksul paljunesid ja levisid need väikesed agressiivsed loomad üle Mesopotaamia poolsaare ning täiustusid pidevalt nii füüsilise tüübi kui ka üldise arukuse poolest. Ja täpselt seitsekümmend põlvkonda pärast selle uue suguharu tekkimist kõrgemat tüüpi leemurist esivanemast toimus uus epohhiloov areng — äkki eristusid Urantia inimolendite arengu järgmise olulise etapi esivanemad.

62:2.6 (704.5) These aggressive little animals multiplied and spread over the Mesopotamian peninsula for more than one thousand years, constantly improving in physical type and general intelligence. And it was just seventy generations after this new tribe had taken origin from the highest type of lemur ancestor that the next epoch-making development occurred — the sudden differentiation of the ancestors of the next vital step in the evolution of human beings on Urantia.

3. Vahepealsed imetajad

3. The Mid-Mammals

Ürgimetajate elujärgu algul, nende väledate olendite arenenud paari elupaigas puu otsas sündisid kaksikud, üks emane ja üks isane. Need olid oma esivanematega võrreldes tõeliselt ilusad väikesed loomad. Neil oli kehal vähe karvu, kuid see ei olnud neile puudeks, sest nad elasid soojas ja ühtlases kliimas.

62:3.1 (704.6) Early in the career of the dawn mammals, in the treetop abode of a superior pair of these agile creatures, twins were born, one male and one female. Compared with their ancestors, they were really handsome little creatures. They had little hair on their bodies, but this was no disability as they lived in a warm and equable climate.

Need lapsed kasvasid veidi enam kui ühe meetri ja kahekümne sentimeetri pikkuseks. Nad olid igas suhtes oma vanematest suuremad, neil olid pikemad jalad ja lühemad käed. Nende pöidlad paindusid peaaegu täiuslikult vastu kämmalt, olles mitmesugusteks töödeks peaaegu niisama sobivad kui inimese praegune pöial. Nad kõndisid püsti, nende jalad sobisid kõndimiseks peaaegu niisama hästi kui hilisematel inimrassidel.

62:3.2 (705.1) These children grew to be a little over four feet in height. They were in every way larger than their parents, having longer legs and shorter arms. They had almost perfectly opposable thumbs, just about as well adapted for diversified work as the present human thumb. They walked upright, having feet almost as well suited for walking as those of the later human races.

Nende aju oli vähem arenenud ja väiksem kui inimolenditel, ent palju kõrgemalt arenenud ja palju suurem kui nende esivanematel. Kaksikutel ilmnes juba varakult kõrge intellekt ning neid tunnustati peagi kogu ürgimetajate suguharu juhtidena, millega loodi tegelikult algelist tüüpi ühiskonnakord ja algeline majanduslik tööjaotus. Õde ja vend paaritusid ning peagi oli neil kakskümmend üks üsna omasugust last, kõik üle ühe meetri ja kahekümne sentimeetri pikad ja igas suhtes oma esivanemate liigist arenenumad. Sellest uuest rühmast sai vahepealsete imetajate tuumik.

62:3.3 (705.2) Their brains were inferior to, and smaller than, those of human beings but very superior to, and comparatively much larger than, those of their ancestors. The twins early displayed superior intelligence and were soon recognized as the heads of the whole tribe of dawn mammals, really instituting a primitive form of social organization and a crude economic division of labor. This brother and sister mated and soon enjoyed the society of twenty-one children much like themselves, all more than four feet tall and in every way superior to the ancestral species. This new group formed the nucleus of the mid-mammals.

Kui see uus ja arenenum rühm arvuliselt suurenes, puhkes halastamatu sõda. Pärast selle kohutava võitluse lõppu ei olnud enam ühtki varem eksisteerinud esivanematest ürgimetajate rassi esindajat elus. Liigi väiksemaarvulisem, kuid võimsam ja arukam haru oli oma esivanemate arvel püsima jäänud.

62:3.4 (705.3) When the numbers of this new and superior group grew great, war, relentless war, broke out; and when the terrible struggle was over, not a single individual of the pre-existent and ancestral race of dawn mammals remained alive. The less numerous but more powerful and intelligent offshoot of the species had survived at the expense of their ancestors.

Ning nüüd sai sellest olendist peaaegu viieteistkümneks tuhandeks aastaks (kuuesajaks põlvkonnaks) maailmaosa hirm. Kõik eelmiste aegade suured ja tigedad loomad olid hävinud. Nende alade kohalikud suured loomad ei olnud lihasööjad ja kasside perekonna suuremad liigid, lõvid ja tiigrid, ei olnud veel maakera sellesse eriliselt kaitstud piirkonda tunginud. Seetõttu said need vahepealsed imetajad vaprateks võitlejateks ja allutasid kogu oma maanurga.

62:3.5 (705.4) And now, for almost fifteen thousand years (six hundred generations), this creature became the terror of this part of the world. All of the great and vicious animals of former times had perished. The large beasts native to these regions were not carnivorous, and the larger species of the cat family, lions and tigers, had not yet invaded this peculiarly sheltered nook of the earth’s surface. Therefore did these mid-mammals wax valiant and subdue the whole of their corner of creation.

Võrreldes oma esivanematega olid vahepealsed imetajad igas suhtes täiuslikumad. Isegi nende võimalik eluiga oli pikem, ulatudes umbes kahekümne viie aastani. Selles uues liigis ilmnes mitmeid algelisi inimlikke jooni. Lisaks oma esivanemates ilmnenud sünnipärastele kalduvustele olid need vahepealsed imetajad võimelised väljendama teatavates vastumeelsetes olukordades vastikustunnet. Neis ilmnes selgelt ka varude soetamise instinkt; nad peitsid toitu, et seda hiljem kasutada, ja armastasid väga koguda siledaid ümaraid kivikesi ning teatavat liiki ümmargusi kive, mis sobisid sõjamoonaks, millega end kaitsta või vaenlast rünnata.

62:3.6 (705.5) Compared with the ancestral species, the mid-mammals were an improvement in every way. Even their potential life span was longer, being about twenty-five years. A number of rudimentary human traits appeared in this new species. In addition to the innate propensities exhibited by their ancestors, these mid-mammals were capable of showing disgust in certain repulsive situations. They further possessed a well-defined hoarding instinct; they would hide food for subsequent use and were greatly given to the collection of smooth round pebbles and certain types of round stones suitable for defensive and offensive ammunition.

Vahepealsed imetajad olid esimesed, kellel ilmnes selgelt ehitamiskalduvus, nagu näitas ka nende võistlemine nii puu otsa majade ehitamises kui ka paljude tunnelitega maa-aluste pelgupaikade rajamises. Nad olid üldse esimene imetajaliik, kes kaitses end puu otsa ja maa alla ehitatud varjupaikadega. Nad loobusid suures osas puude otsas elamisest, elades päeval maapinnal ja magades öösel puu otsas.

62:3.7 (705.6) These mid-mammals were the first to exhibit a definite construction propensity, as shown in their rivalry in the building of both treetop homes and their many-tunneled subterranean retreats; they were the first species of mammals ever to provide for safety in both arboreal and underground shelters. They largely forsook the trees as places of abode, living on the ground during the day and sleeping in the treetops at night.

Aja möödudes tekkis nende arvukuse loomuliku kasvuga lõpuks tihe konkurents toidu ja vastassoo pärast, mis kulmineerus paljude ohvririkaste lahingutega, nii et peaaegu kogu liik hävis. Võitlused jätkusid, kuni ellu jäi vaid üks, vähem kui sajaliikmeline rühm. Ent nüüd valitses taas rahu ja see üksildane püsimajäänud suguharu ehitas endale puude otsa uued magalad ja jätkas taas oma normaalset poolrahulikku eksistentsi.

62:3.8 (705.7) As time passed, the natural increase in numbers eventually resulted in serious food competition and sex rivalry, all of which culminated in a series of internecine battles that nearly destroyed the entire species. These struggles continued until only one group of less than one hundred individuals was left alive. But peace once more prevailed, and this lone surviving tribe built anew its treetop bedrooms and once again resumed a normal and semipeaceful existence.

Vaevalt oskate kujutleda, kuivõrd väljasuremise äärel teie inimese-eelsed esivanemad aeg-ajalt on olnud. Kui kogu inimsoo esivanemaks olnud konn oleks hüpanud ühel teataval juhul viis sentimeetrit vähem, oleks kogu areng kulgenud hoopis teisiti. Ürgimetajate otsene leemuritaoline ema pääses surmast vähemalt viis korda vaid juuksekarva võrra, enne kui sünnitas uue kõrgema imetajaklassi isa. Ent kõige lähemal hukule oldi siis, kui välk lõi puusse, mille otsas magas primaadikaksikute tulevane ema. Mõlemad neist vahepealsetest imetajatest vanematest said tugeva šoki ja tõsise põletuse; see taevast tulnud välk tappis kolm nende seitsmest lapsest. Need arenevad loomad olid peaaegu ebausklikud. Paar, kelle puukodusse välk lõi, oli tegelikult vahepealsete imetajate liigi arenenuma rühma juht, kelle eeskujul siirdus üle poole suguharust, arukamad pered, sellest paigast ligikaudu kolme kilomeetri kaugusele ja hakkas ehitama puude otsa uusi eluasemeid ning maa alla uusi varjupaiku — ajutisi pelgupaiku ootamatu ohu puhuks.

62:3.9 (705.8) You can hardly realize by what narrow margins your prehuman ancestors missed extinction from time to time. Had the ancestral frog of all humanity jumped two inches less on a certain occasion, the whole course of evolution would have been markedly changed. The immediate lemurlike mother of the dawn-mammal species escaped death no less than five times by mere hairbreadth margins before she gave birth to the father of the new and higher mammalian order. But the closest call of all was when lightning struck the tree in which the prospective mother of the Primates twins was sleeping. Both of these mid-mammal parents were severely shocked and badly burned; three of their seven children were killed by this bolt from the skies. These evolving animals were almost superstitious. This couple whose treetop home had been struck were really the leaders of the more progressive group of the mid-mammal species; and following their example, more than half the tribe, embracing the more intelligent families, moved about two miles away from this locality and began the construction of new treetop abodes and new ground shelters — their transient retreats in time of sudden danger.

Varsti pärast kodu valmimist sündisid sellel palju võitlusi üle elanud paaril kaksikud, kõige huvitavamad ja tähtsamad loomad, kes kuni selle ajani üldse olid maailma sündinud, sest nad olid esimesed uuest primaatide liigist, inimese-eelse arengu järgmisest olulisest etapist.

62:3.10 (706.1) Soon after the completion of their home, this couple, veterans of so many struggles, found themselves the proud parents of twins, the most interesting and important animals ever to have been born into the world up to that time, for they were the first of the new species of Primates constituting the next vital step in prehuman evolution.

Samaaegselt nende primaatidest kaksikute sünniga sündisid kaksikud ka ühel teisel paaril — vahepealsete imetajate suguharu eriti mahajäänud emasel ja isasel, kes olid nii vaimselt kui ka füüsiliselt vähem arenenud. Need kaksikud, üks emane ja teine isane, ei olnud vallutamisest huvitatud. Neid huvitas vaid toiduhankimine ja et nad liha ei söönud, kaotasid nad saakloomade otsimise vastu peagi igasuguse huvi. Need alaarenenud kaksikud said praeguste inimahvide eellasteks. Nende järeltulijad koondusid soojematesse lõunapoolsetesse piirkondadesse, kus oli pehme kliima ja külluses troopilisi puuvilju, ning nad elavad seal tänapäevani üsna samamoodi, välja arvatud harud, mis paaritusid varasemat tüüpi gibonite ja inimahvidega ning on selle tagajärjel suuresti mandunud.

62:3.11 (706.2) Contemporaneously with the birth of these Primates twins, another couple — a peculiarly retarded male and female of the mid-mammal tribe, a couple that were both mentally and physically inferior — also gave birth to twins. These twins, one male and one female, were indifferent to conquest; they were concerned only with obtaining food and, since they would not eat flesh, soon lost all interest in seeking prey. These retarded twins became the founders of the modern simian tribes. Their descendants sought the warmer southern regions with their mild climates and an abundance of tropical fruits, where they have continued much as of that day except for those branches which mated with the earlier types of gibbons and apes and have greatly deteriorated in consequence.

Seega on selgesti näha, et inimene on inimahviga suguluses vaid selle poolest, et mõlemad põlvnevad vahepealsetest imetajatest, suguharust, kus sündis ja seejärel eraldus üheaegselt kaks kaksikutepaari: vähemarenenud paar, kelle saatuseks sai praeguste ahvitüüpide, paaviani, šimpansi ja gorilla väljaarendamine; ja kõrgemalt arenenud paar, kelle saatuseks sai jätkata inimese endani arenevat tõusuliini.

62:3.12 (706.3) And so it may be readily seen that man and the ape are related only in that they sprang from the mid-mammals, a tribe in which there occurred the contemporaneous birth and subsequent segregation of two pairs of twins: the inferior pair destined to produce the modern types of monkey, baboon, chimpanzee, and gorilla; the superior pair destined to continue the line of ascent which evolved into man himself.

Nüüdisaegne inimene ja ahvilised pärinesid küll samast suguharust ja liigist, kuid mitte samadest vanematest. Inimese eellased põlvnevad selle vahepealsete imetajate sugukonna valikjäänuki parematest tüvikondadest, nüüdisaegsed ahvid (välja arvatud teatavad varem eksisteerinud leemurite, gibonite, inimahvide ja teiste ahvitaoliste olendite tüübid) on selle vahepealsete imetajate rühma kõige vähemarenenud paari järeltulijad, kusjuures see paar jäi ellu vaid seetõttu, et peitis end oma suguharu viimase ägeda lahingu ajal kaks nädalat maa-aluses toiduhoidlas ja tuli välja alles siis, kui sõjategevus oli ammu lõppenud.

62:3.13 (706.4) Modern man and the simians did spring from the same tribe and species but not from the same parents. Man’s ancestors are descended from the superior strains of the selected remnant of this mid-mammal tribe, whereas the modern simians (excepting certain pre-existent types of lemurs, gibbons, apes, and other monkeylike creatures) are the descendants of the most inferior couple of this mid-mammal group, a couple who only survived by hiding themselves in a subterranean food-storage retreat for more than two weeks during the last fierce battle of their tribe, emerging only after the hostilities were well over.

4. Primaadid

4. The Primates

Pöördume tagasi kõrgelt arenenud kaksikute, emase ja isase juurde, kes olid vahepealsete imetajate suguharu kaks juhtivat liiget: need loomalapsed olid ebatavalist klassi, neil oli kehal veel vähem karvu kui nende vanematel, ja lapsena püüdsid nad kangekaelselt püsti käia. Nende esivanemad olid alati õppinud tagajalgadel käima, kuid need primaatidest kaksikud seisid algusest peale püsti. Nad sirgusid enam kui meetri ja viiekümne sentimeetri pikkuseks ja nende pead kasvasid teiste suguharuliikmete peadest suuremaks. Nad õppisid küll varakult omavahel märkide ja häälitsuste abil suhtlema, kuid ei suutnud neid uusi sümboleid oma rahvale selgeks teha.

62:4.1 (706.5) Going back to the birth of the superior twins, one male and one female, to the two leading members of the mid-mammal tribe: These animal babies were of an unusual order; they had still less hair on their bodies than their parents and, when very young, insisted on walking upright. Their ancestors had always learned to walk on their hind legs, but these Primates twins stood erect from the beginning. They attained a height of over five feet, and their heads grew larger in comparison with others among the tribe. While early learning to communicate with each other by means of signs and sounds, they were never able to make their people understand these new symbols.

Umbes neljateistkümneaastastena põgenesid nad oma suguharust lääne poole, et pere üles kasvatada ja panna alus uuele primaatide liigile. Neid uusi olendeid ongi väga kohane primaatideks nimetada, sest nad olid inimese enda otsesed ja vahetud loomadest esivanemad.

62:4.2 (707.1) When about fourteen years of age, they fled from the tribe, going west to raise their family and establish the new species of Primates. And these new creatures are very properly denominated Primates since they were the direct and immediate animal ancestors of the human family itself.

Selliselt asustasidki primaadid tol ajal pikalt lõunamerre ulatuva Mesopotaamia poolsaare lääneranniku piirkonna, nende vähemarukate lähisugulaste suguharud elasid aga poolsaare tipu ümbruses ja piki idarannikut.

62:4.3 (707.2) Thus it was that the Primates came to occupy a region on the west coast of the Mesopotamian peninsula as it then projected into the southern sea, while the less intelligent and closely related tribes lived around the peninsula point and up the eastern shore line.

Primaadid olid vahepealsetest imetajatest eellastest inimlikumad ja vähem loomalikud. Uue liigi skelett sarnases oma proportsioonidelt väga algeliste inimrasside skeletiga, nende inimesetüüpi käe-ja jalalaba olid täielikult välja arenenud. Need olendid võisid kõndida ning isegi joosta sama hästi kui kõik nende hilisemad inimestest järeltulijad. Puu otsas elamisest nad suures osas loobusid, kuigi peitusid ööseks ohutuse mõttes ikka veel puude otsa, sest olid väga kartlikud nagu nende varasemad esivanemadki. Nad hakkasid rohkem oma käsi kasutama, mis arendas hästi ajutegevust, kuid nende meelt poleks saanud veel päriselt inimmeeleks nimetada.

62:4.4 (707.3) The Primates were more human and less animal than their mid-mammal predecessors. The skeletal proportions of this new species were very similar to those of the primitive human races. The human type of hand and foot had fully developed, and these creatures could walk and even run as well as any of their later-day human descendants. They largely abandoned tree life, though continuing to resort to the treetops as a safety measure at night, for like their earlier ancestors, they were greatly subject to fear. The increased use of their hands did much to develop inherent brain power, but they did not yet possess minds that could really be called human.

Kuigi oma emotsionaalse loomuse poolest erinesid primaadid eellastest vähe, ilmnes nende kalduvustes rohkem inimlikkust. Nad olid tegelikult suurepärased kõrgelt arenenud loomad, kes jõudsid küpsuseni ligikaudu kümneaastaselt, ja nende loomulik eluiga oli umbes nelikümmend aastat. See tähendab, et nad oleksid võinud nii kaua elada, kui oleksid surnud loomulikku surma, ent neil varastel aegadel surid loomulikku surma üldse väga vähesed loomad; olelusvõitlus oli selleks liiga pingeline.

62:4.5 (707.4) Although in emotional nature the Primates differed little from their forebears, they exhibited more of a human trend in all of their propensities. They were, indeed, splendid and superior animals, reaching maturity at about ten years of age and having a natural life span of about forty years. That is, they might have lived that long had they died natural deaths, but in those early days very few animals ever died a natural death; the struggle for existence was altogether too intense.

Ja nüüd, pärast peaaegu üheksasaja põlvkonna jooksul toimunud arengut, mis hõlmas ligikaudu kakskümmend üks tuhat aastat alates ürgimetajate tekkimisest, sündis primaatidel äkki kaks tähelepanuväärset olendit, kaks esimest tõelist inimolendit.

62:4.6 (707.5) And now, after almost nine hundred generations of development, covering about twenty-one thousand years from the origin of the dawn mammals, the Primates suddenly gave birth to two remarkable creatures, the first true human beings.

Seega said Põhja-Ameerika leemuritüübist põlvnenud ürgimetajatest alguse vahepealsed imetajad ja neist vahepealsetest imetajatest omakorda kõrgelt arenenud primaadid, kes said algelise inimrassi vahetuteks esivanemateks. Primaadid olid inimese arengus viimane oluline lüli, ent vähem kui tuhande aastaga polnud neist erakordsetest suguharudest enam ühtki isendit järel.

62:4.7 (707.6) Thus it was that the dawn mammals, springing from the North American lemur type, gave origin to the mid-mammals, and these mid-mammals in turn produced the superior Primates, who became the immediate ancestors of the primitive human race. The Primates tribes were the last vital link in the evolution of man, but in less than five thousand years not a single individual of these extraordinary tribes was left.

5. Esimesed inimolendid

5. The First Human Beings

Aastast 1934 pKr tagasi kahe esimese inimolendi sünnini on täpselt 993 419 aastat.

62:5.1 (707.7) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years.

Need kaks tähelepanuväärset loodud-olendit olid tõelised inimolendid. Neil olid täiuslikud inimese pöidlad nagu ka paljudel nende esivanematel ning täpselt sama täiuslikud jalalabad kui praegustel inimrassidel. Nad olid kõndijad ja jooksjad, mitte ronijad; suure varba haaramisfunktsioon oli kadunud, täielikult hävinud. Kui oht neid puu otsa ajas, ronisid nad täpselt samamoodi, nagu seda teeksid tänapäeva inimesed. Nad ronisid mööda puutüve karu kombel, mitte šimpansi või gorilla moodi, kes hooglevad üles mööda oksi.

62:5.2 (707.8) These two remarkable creatures were true human beings. They possessed perfect human thumbs, as had many of their ancestors, while they had just as perfect feet as the present-day human races. They were walkers and runners, not climbers; the grasping function of the big toe was absent, completely absent. When danger drove them to the treetops, they climbed just like the humans of today would. They would climb up the trunk of a tree like a bear and not as would a chimpanzee or a gorilla, swinging up by the branches.

Esimesed inimolendid (ja nende järeltulijad) jõudsid täisküpsuseni kaheteistkümneaastaselt ning nende võimalik eluiga oli ligikaudu seitsekümmend viis aastat.

62:5.3 (708.1) These first human beings (and their descendants) reached full maturity at twelve years of age and possessed a potential life span of about seventy-five years.

Neil inimkaksikutel ilmnes varakult palju uusi emotsioone. Nad imetlesid nii esemeid kui ka teisi olendeid ja olid üsna edevad. Ent kõige suurem edusamm nende emotsionaalses arengus oli tõeliste inimlike tunnete uue rühma, palveldamisrühma äkiline ilmumine, mis hõlmas aukartust, harrast austust, alandlikkust ja isegi algelist tänulikkust. Hirm koos teadmatusega loodusnähtuste suhtes sünnitab paratamatult algelise religiooni.

62:5.4 (708.2) Many new emotions early appeared in these human twins. They experienced admiration for both objects and other beings and exhibited considerable vanity. But the most remarkable advance in emotional development was the sudden appearance of a new group of really human feelings, the worshipful group, embracing awe, reverence, humility, and even a primitive form of gratitude. Fear, joined with ignorance of natural phenomena, is about to give birth to primitive religion.

Need polnud mitte ainsad neis algelistes inimestes ilmnenud tunded, algelisel kujul olid olemas ka paljud kõrgemad tundmused. Nad tunnetasid ähmaselt kahjutunnet, häbi ja etteheiteid ning olid teravalt teadlikud armastusest, vihkamisest ja kättemaksust, olles vastuvõtlikud ka märkimisväärsele kadedustundele.

62:5.5 (708.3) Not only were such human feelings manifested in these primitive humans, but many more highly evolved sentiments were also present in rudimentary form. They were mildly cognizant of pity, shame, and reproach and were acutely conscious of love, hate, and revenge, being also susceptible to marked feelings of jealousy.

Need kaks esimest inimest — kaksikud — olid oma primaatidest vanematele suur katsumus. Nad olid nii uudishimulikud ja seiklushimulised, et oleksid enne kaheksaaastaseks saamist palju kordi peaaegu oma elu kaotanud. Kaheteistkümneaastaselt oli neil tegelikult üsna palju arme.

62:5.6 (708.4) These first two humans — the twins — were a great trial to their Primates parents. They were so curious and adventurous that they nearly lost their lives on numerous occasions before they were eight years old. As it was, they were rather well scarred up by the time they were twelve.

Nad õppisid väga varakult verbaalselt suhtlema. Kümneaastaselt olid nad töötanud välja peaaegu poolesajast mõttest koosneva täiustatud märgi- ja sõnakeele ning olid oma esivanemate tahumatut suhtlemisviisi tunduvalt täiustanud ja avardanud. Ent kuidas nad ka ei püüdnud, suutsid nad oma vanematele õpetada vaid väheseid oma uutest märkidest ja sümbolitest.

62:5.7 (708.5) Very early they learned to engage in verbal communication; by the age of ten they had worked out an improved sign and word language of almost half a hundred ideas and had greatly improved and expanded the crude communicative technique of their ancestors. But try as hard as they might, they were able to teach only a few of their new signs and symbols to their parents.

Umbes üheksa-aastasena kõndisid nad ühel ilusal päeval mööda jõekallast ja arutasid omavahel olulisi asju. Kõik Urantial asunud taevased intellektid, mina kaasa arvatud, viibisid vaatlejatena selle keskpäevase kohtumise juures. Nad jõudsid sel sündmusrikkal päeval arusaamisele, et hakkavad elama koos ja teineteise jaoks, ning see oli esimene tervest reast sellistest kokkulepetest, mis kulmineerusid lõpuks otsuses põgeneda oma vähemarenenud kaaslaste juurest ja rännata põhja poole, aimamata, et panevad sellega aluse inimsoole.

62:5.8 (708.6) When about nine years of age, they journeyed off down the river one bright day and held a momentous conference. Every celestial intelligence stationed on Urantia, including myself, was present as an observer of the transactions of this noontide tryst. On this eventful day they arrived at an understanding to live with and for each other, and this was the first of a series of such agreements which finally culminated in the decision to flee from their inferior animal associates and to journey northward, little knowing that they were thus to found the human race.

Kuigi me kõik olime väga mures nende kahe väikese metslase plaanide pärast, olime võimetud nende mõttetegevust suunama; me ei mõjutanud — ei saanud mõjutada meelevaldselt nende otsuseid. Kuid meie, Elukandjad, aitasime meile planeedil tegutsemiseks lubatud piirides koos oma kaaslastega inimkaksikuid põhja poole juhtida, eemale nende karvasest ja osaliselt veel puu otsas elavast rahvast. Ja kaksikud rändasidki omaenda aruka valiku tulemusena ning tänu meie juhendamisele põhja poole, eraldatud piirkonda, kus neil ei olnud ohtu bioloogiliselt manduda, segunedes oma vähemarenenud sugulastega primaatide suguharudest.

62:5.9 (708.7) While we were all greatly concerned with what these two little savages were planning, we were powerless to control the working of their minds; we did not — could not — arbitrarily influence their decisions. But within the permissible limits of planetary function, we, the Life Carriers, together with our associates, all conspired to lead the human twins northward and far from their hairy and partially tree-dwelling people. And so, by reason of their own intelligent choice, the twins did migrate, and because of our supervision they migrated northward to a secluded region where they escaped the possibility of biologic degradation through admixture with their inferior relatives of the Primates tribes.

Veidi enne kodumetsadest lahkumist kaotasid nad gibonite ründeretke tagajärjel ema. Kuigi emal polnud nende arukust, tundis ta oma järeltulijate vastu tõeliselt suurt imetajakiindumust ning andis kartmatult oma elu, püüdes imelist paari kaitsta. Tema ohver ei olnud asjatu, sest ta pidas vaenlast kinni, kuni isa saabus abijõuga ja lõi sissetungijad põgenema.

62:5.10 (708.8) Shortly before their departure from the home forests they lost their mother in a gibbon raid. While she did not possess their intelligence, she did have a worthy mammalian affection of a high order for her offspring, and she fearlessly gave her life in the attempt to save the wonderful pair. Nor was her sacrifice in vain, for she held off the enemy until the father arrived with reinforcements and put the invaders to rout.

Varsti pärast seda lahkus noor paar oma kaaslastest, et panna alus inimsoole, nende primaadist isa oli aga lohutamatu — masendatud. Ta keeldus söömast, kuigi ta teised lapsed tõid talle toitu. Kaotanud oma targad järeltulijad, ei tundunud elu tema tavaliste kaaslaste seas enam elamist väärt. Ta uitas metsas ringi, langes vaenulike gibonite kätte ja peksti surnuks.

62:5.11 (709.1) Soon after this young couple forsook their associates to found the human race, their Primates father became disconsolate — he was heartbroken. He refused to eat, even when food was brought to him by his other children. His brilliant offspring having been lost, life did not seem worth living among his ordinary fellows; so he wandered off into the forest, was set upon by hostile gibbons and beaten to death.

6. Inimmeele areng

6. Evolution of the Human Mind

Meie, Urantia Elukandjad, olime kogu selle aja valvsalt oodanud alates hetkest, mil istutasime planeedi vetesse esmakordselt eluplasma, ning esimeste tõeliste intellekti- ja tahteolendite ilmumine tegi meile muidugi rõõmu ja andis ülima rahuldustunde.

62:6.1 (709.2) We, the Life Carriers on Urantia, had passed through the long vigil of watchful waiting since the day we first planted the life plasm in the planetary waters, and naturally the appearance of the first really intelligent and volitional beings brought to us great joy and supreme satisfaction.

Kaksikute vaimse arengu jälgimiseks olime vaadelnud nende seitsme meeleabivaimu tegevust, kes olid määratud Urantiale koos meie saabumisega planeedile. Planeedi elu kogu pika evolutsiooni jooksul olid need väsimatud meele hoolekandjad näidanud pidevalt, et nad suudavad üha paremini kontakteeruda üha kõrgemate loomolendite järjest arenenuma ajuga.

62:6.2 (709.3) We had been watching the twins develop mentally through our observation of the functioning of the seven adjutant mind-spirits assigned to Urantia at the time of our arrival on the planet. Throughout the long evolutionary development of planetary life, these tireless mind ministers had ever registered their increasing ability to contact with the successively expanding brain capacities of the progressively superior animal creatures.

Ürgalgse loomariigi instinktiivses ja reflektoorses käitumises sai algul tegutseda ainult intuitsioonivaim. Kõrgemate tüüpide eristumisel sai arusaamisvaim annetada neile loodud-olenditele mõtete spontaanse seondumise. Hiljem täheldasime julgusevaimu tegutsemist, arengulistel loomadel arenes tegelikult algelisel kujul kaitsev eneseteadvus. Pärast imetajarühmade ilmumist nägime üha suuremal määral teadmisvaimu avaldumist. Ja kõrgemate imetajate areng tõi kaasa nõuandevaimu tegevuse, mille tulemusena kasvas karjainstinkt ja käivitus algeline sotsiaalne areng.

62:6.3 (709.4) At first only the spirit of intuition could function in the instinctive and reflex behavior of the primordial animal life. With the differentiation of higher types, the spirit of understanding was able to endow such creatures with the gift of spontaneous association of ideas. Later on we observed the spirit of courage in operation; evolving animals really developed a crude form of protective self-consciousness. Subsequent to the appearance of the mammalian groups, we beheld the spirit of knowledge manifesting itself in increased measure. And the evolution of the higher mammals brought the function of the spirit of counsel, with the resulting growth of the herd instinct and the beginnings of primitive social development.

Nii ürgimetajate, vahepealsete imetajate kui ka primaatide arengus täheldasime esimese viie meeleabivaimu toetust üha enam. Kuid kaks ülejäänud vaimu, kõrgeimad meelvaimud, ei olnud veel kunagi saanud Urantia-tüüpi arengulises meeles tegutseda.

62:6.4 (709.5) Increasingly, on down through the dawn mammals, the mid-mammals, and the Primates, we had observed the augmented service of the first five adjutants. But never had the remaining two, the highest mind ministers, been able to function in the Urantia type of evolutionary mind.

Kujutlege, kuidas me ühel päeval rõõmustasime — kaksikud olid umbes kümneaastased — kui palveldamisvaim esmakordselt emase ja veidi hiljem isase kaksiku meelega ühendusse astus. Me teadsime, et kulmineerumas oli miski, mis oli inimmeelega lähedases suguluses; ja kui nad siis ligikaudu aasta pärast, sügava mõtiskluse ja sihikindla otsuse tulemusena otsustasid kodust põgeneda ja põhja poole rännata, hakkas Urantial, neis kahes nüüd inimmõistuseks tunnistatud meeles, tegutsema tarkusevaim.

62:6.5 (709.6) Imagine our joy one day — the twins were about ten years old — when the spirit of worship made its first contact with the mind of the female twin and shortly thereafter with the male. We knew that something closely akin to human mind was approaching culmination; and when, about a year later, they finally resolved, as a result of meditative thought and purposeful decision, to flee from home and journey north, then did the spirit of wisdom begin to function on Urantia and in these two now recognized human minds.

Seitse meeleabivaimu mobiliseerusid nüüd kohe uue korra järgi. Olime pinevas ootuses; mõistsime, et on lähenemas kauaoodatud tund; teadsime, et kohe on vilja kandmas meie pikaajaline pingutus arendada Urantial välja tahteolendid.

62:6.6 (709.7) There was an immediate and new order of mobilization of the seven adjutant mind-spirits. We were alive with expectation; we realized that the long-waited-for hour was approaching; we knew we were upon the threshold of the realization of our protracted effort to evolve will creatures on Urantia.

7. Urantia tunnustamine asustatud maailmana

7. Recognition as an Inhabited World

Meil ei tulnud kaua oodata. Järgmisel päeval pärast kaksikute põgenemist tekkis Urantia planeedi vastuvõtukeskuses keskpäeval universumiringluste signaalide esimene katsevälgatus. Olime kõik muidugi ärevil, mõistes, et on oodata suursündmust, ent kuna see maailm oli elukatsejaam, polnud meil vähimatki aimu, kuidas meile planeedi intellektielu tunnustamisest täpselt teatatakse. Meil ei tulnud kaua teadmatuses viibida. Kolmandal päeval pärast kaksikute põgenemist ja enne Elukandjate korpuse lahkumist saabus Nebadoni peaingel planeedile lähteringlust moodustama.

62:7.1 (709.8) We did not have to wait long. At noon, the day after the runaway of the twins, there occurred the initial test flash of the universe circuit signals at the planetary reception-focus of Urantia. We were, of course, all astir with the realization that a great event was impending; but since this world was a life-experiment station, we had not the slightest idea of just how we would be apprised of the recognition of intelligent life on the planet. But we were not long in suspense. On the third day after the elopement of the twins, and before the Life Carrier corps departed, there arrived the Nebadon archangel of initial planetary circuit establishment.

See oli Urantial sündmusrikas päev, mil meie väike rühm kogunes planeedi kosmosesidepooluse ümber ja sai Salvingtonilt planeedi äsja sisseseatud meeleringluse kaudu esimese teate. Ning see esimene teade, mille dikteeris peainglite korpuse ülem, oli järgmine:

62:7.2 (710.1) It was an eventful day on Urantia when our small group gathered about the planetary pole of space communication and received the first message from Salvington over the newly established mind circuit of the planet. And this first message, dictated by the chief of the archangel corps, said:

„Urantia Elukandjatele — Tervitus! Teatame, et Salvingtonil, Edential ja Jerusemil on väga hea meel registreerida Nebadoni keskuses signaal tahteväärikusega meele eksisteerimise kohta Urantial. Kaksikute sihikindlat otsust põgeneda põhja poole ja eraldada oma järeltulijad vähemarenenud esivanematest on tähele pandud. See on Urantial esimene meele, inimtüüpi meele otsus ning seab automaatselt sisse sideringluse, mille kaudu me käesolevat tunnustamissõnumit edastame.”

62:7.3 (710.2) “To the Life Carriers on Urantia — Greetings! We transmit assurance of great pleasure on Salvington, Edentia, and Jerusem in honor of the registration on the headquarters of Nebadon of the signal of the existence on Urantia of mind of will dignity. The purposeful decision of the twins to flee northward and segregate their offspring from their inferior ancestors has been noted. This is the first decision of mind — the human type of mind — on Urantia and automatically establishes the circuit of communication over which this initial message of acknowledgment is transmitting.”

Seejärel saabusid uue ringluse kaudu Edentia Kõigekõrgemate tervitused koos juhistega kohalikele Elukandjatele, mis keelasid meil sellesse meie poolt sisseseatud elumudelisse sekkuda. Meil keelati vahele segada inimprogressi küsimustesse. Ei maksa arvata, et Elukandjad sekkuvad kunagi meelevaldselt ja mehaaniliselt planeedi evolutsiooni kavade loomulikku kulgu, sest me ei tee seda. Kuni selle ajani oli meil lubatud keskkonda juhtida ja eluplasmat eriliselt kaitsta, nüüd aga tuli see erandlik, kuid täiesti loomulik järelevalve lõpetada.

62:7.4 (710.3) Next over this new circuit came the greetings of the Most Highs of Edentia, containing instructions for the resident Life Carriers forbidding us to interfere with the pattern of life we had established. We were directed not to intervene in the affairs of human progress. It should not be inferred that Life Carriers ever arbitrarily and mechanically interfere with the natural outworking of the planetary evolutionary plans, for we do not. But up to this time we had been permitted to manipulate the environment and shield the life plasm in a special manner, and it was this extraordinary, but wholly natural, supervision that was to be discontinued.

Ning niipea kui Kõigekõrgemad oma jutu lõpetasid, jõudis planeedile Satania süsteemi tollase suverääni Luciferi kaunis sõnum. Elukandjad kuulsid nüüd omaenda ülema tervitussõnu ja said temalt loa Jerusemi tagasi pöörduda. Selle Luciferi sõnumiga võeti Elukandjate töö Urantial ametlikult vastu ja meid vabastati igasugusest tulevasest kriitikast meie pingutuste suhtes täiustada Satania süsteemis sisseseatud Nebadoni elumudeleid.

62:7.5 (710.4) And no sooner had the Most Highs left off speaking than the beautiful message of Lucifer, then sovereign of the Satania system, began to planetize. Now the Life Carriers heard the welcome words of their own chief and received his permission to return to Jerusem. This message from Lucifer contained the official acceptance of the Life Carriers’ work on Urantia and absolved us from all future criticism of any of our efforts to improve the life patterns of Nebadon as established in the Satania system.

Salvingtonilt, Edentialt ja Jerusemilt saabunud sõnumid tähistasid ametlikult Elukandjate pikki ajastuid kestnud järelevalve lõppu planeedil. Nad olid ajastuid valves olnud, neid olid abistanud vaid seitse meeleabivaimu ja Füüsilised Meisterjuhtijad. Ja nüüd, mil planeedi arengulistes loodud-olendites oli tekkinud tahe, võime valida palveldamine ja tõus, mõistsime, et meie töö on lõpule jõudnud, ning meie rühm valmistus lahkuma. Kuna Urantia oli elu teisendamise maailm, anti luba jätta kohale kaks vanemat Elukandjat koos kaheteistkümne abilisega, ning mind valiti sellesse rühma ja ma olen sellest ajast saadik Urantial viibinud.

62:7.6 (710.5) These messages from Salvington, Edentia, and Jerusem formally marked the termination of the Life Carriers’ agelong supervision of the planet. For ages we had been on duty, assisted only by the seven adjutant mind-spirits and the Master Physical Controllers. And now, will, the power of choosing to worship and to ascend, having appeared in the evolutionary creatures of the planet, we realized that our work was finished, and our group prepared to depart. Urantia being a life-modification world, permission was granted to leave behind two senior Life Carriers with twelve assistants, and I was chosen as one of this group and have ever since been on Urantia.

Urantiat tunnustati ametlikult Nebadoni universumis inimestega asustatud planeedina täpselt 993 408 aastat tagasi (aastast 1934 pKr). Bioloogiline areng jõudis taas inimese tahteväärikuse tasemeni, Satania planeedile number 606 oli saabunud inimene.

62:7.7 (710.6) It is just 993,408 years ago (from the year A.D. 1934) that Urantia was formally recognized as a planet of human habitation in the universe of Nebadon. Biologic evolution had once again achieved the human levels of will dignity; man had arrived on planet 606 of Satania.

[Esitanud Urantial asuv Nebadoni Elukandja.]

62:7.8 (710.7) [Sponsored by a Life Carrier of Nebadon resident on Urantia.]





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